• Barsugli, J. J., and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 2002: Global atmospheric sensitivity to tropical SST anomalies throughout the Indo-Pacific basin. J. Climate, 15, 34273442, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<3427:GASTTS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branstator, G., 2002: Circumglobal teleconnections, the jet stream waveguide, and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 18931910, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1893:CTTJSW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, X., and T. Zhou, 2014: Relative role of tropical SST forcing in the 1990s periodicity change of the Pacific–Japan pattern interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 13 04313 066, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022064.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., J.-Y. Lee, K.-J. Ha, K.-S. Yun, and R. Lu, 2016: Intensification of the western North Pacific anticyclone response to the short decaying El Niño event due to greenhouse warming. J. Climate, 29, 36073627, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0195.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Z., Z. Wen, R. Wu, X. Lin, and J. Wang, 2016: Relative importance of tropical SST anomalies in maintaining the western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone during El Niño to La Niña transition years. Climate Dyn., 46, 10271041, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2630-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Z., Z. Wen, R. Wu, and Y. Du, 2017: Roles of tropical SST anomalies in modulating the western north Pacific anomalous cyclone during strong La Niña decaying years. Climate Dyn., 49, 633647, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3364-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chowdary, J. S., S.-P. Xie, J.-J. Luo, J. Hafner, S. Behera, Y. Masumoto, and T. Yamagata, 2011: Predictability of Northwest Pacific climate during summer and the role of the tropical Indian Ocean. Climate Dyn., 36, 607621, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0686-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chowdary, J. S., S.-P. Xie, H. Tokinaga, Y. M. Okumura, H. Kubota, N. Johnson, and X.-T. Zheng, 2012: Interdecadal variations in ENSO teleconnection to the Indo-western Pacific for 1870–2007. J. Climate, 25, 17221744, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00070.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chowdary, J. S., C. Gnanaseelan, and S. Chakravorty, 2013: Impact of northwest Pacific anticyclone on the Indian summer monsoon region. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 113, 329336, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-012-0785-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chowdary, J. S., H. S. Harsha, C. Gnanaseelan, G. Srinivas, A. Parekh, P. A. Pillai, and C. V. Naidu, 2017: Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability in response to differences in the decay phase of El Niño. Climate Dyn., 48, 27072727, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3233-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, H., R. Greatbatch, W. Park, M. Latif, V. Semenov, and X. Sun, 2014: The variability of the East Asian summer monsoon and its relationship to ENSO in a partially coupled climate model. Climate Dyn., 42, 367379, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1642-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enomoto, T., B. J. Hoskins, and Y. Matsuda, 2003: The formation mechanism of the Bonin high in August. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 157178, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.01.211.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gao, H., S. Yang, A. Kumar, Z.-Z. Hu, B. Huang, Y. Li, and B. Jha, 2011: Variations of the East Asian mei-yu and simulation and prediction by the NCEP Climate Forecast System. J. Climate, 24, 94108, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3540.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, H., L. Wang, W. Chen, R. Wu, K. Wei, and X. Cui, 2014: The climatology and interannual variability of the East Asian winter monsoon in CMIP5 models. J. Climate, 27, 16591678, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00039.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, H., L. Wang, W. Chen, D. Nath, G. Huang, and W. Tao, 2015: Diverse influences of ENSO on the East Asian–western Pacific winter climate tied to different ENSO properties in CMIP5 models. J. Climate, 28, 21872202, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00405.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, H., L. Wang, W. Chen, X. Chen, and D. Nath, 2017: Biases of the wintertime Arctic Oscillation in CMIP5 models. Environ. Res. Lett., 12, 014001, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/12/1/014001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, Z., G. Feng, M. Dogar, and G. Huang, 2017: The possible physical mechanism for the EAP-SR co-action. Climate Dyn., https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3967-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, C., and T. Zhou, 2014: The two interannual variability modes of the western North Pacific subtropical high simulated by 28 CMIP5-AMIP models. Climate Dyn., 43, 24552469, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2068-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and D. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 11791196, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1179:TSLROA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., I. N. James, and G. H. White, 1983: The shape, propagation, and mean-flow interaction of large-scale weather systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 15951612, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1595:TSPAMF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, K., G. Huang, R. Wu, and L. Wang, 2017: Structure and dynamics of a wave train along the wintertime Asian jet and its impact on East Asian climate. Climate Dyn., https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3674-1.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, R., and F. Sun, 1992: Impact of the tropical western Pacific on the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70, 243256, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.70.1B_243.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, R., J. Chen, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, 2012: Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 29, 910942, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-2015-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin, and G. J. Gu, 2009: Improving the global precipitation record: GPCP version 2.1. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L17808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040000.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiang, W., G. Huang, K. Hu, R. Wu, H. Gong, X. Chen, and W. Tao, 2017: Diverse relationship between ENSO and the Northwest Pacific summer climate among CMIP5 models: Dependence on the ENSO decay pace. J. Climate, 30, 109127, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0365.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiang, X., S. Yang, Y. Li, A. Kumar, X. Liu, Z. Zuo, and B. Jha, 2013: Seasonal-to-interannual prediction of the Asian summer monsoon in the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2. J. Climate, 26, 37083727, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00437.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosaka, Y., and H. Nakamura, 2006: Structure and dynamics of the summertime Pacific–Japan teleconnection pattern. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132, 20092030, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.05.204.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosaka, Y., and H. Nakamura, 2010: Mechanisms of meridional teleconnection observed between a summer monsoon system and a subtropical anticyclone. Part I: The Pacific–Japan pattern. J. Climate, 23, 50855108, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3413.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosaka, Y., and H. Nakamura, 2011: Dominant mode of climate variability, inter-model diversity, and projected future changes over the summertime western North Pacific simulated in the CMIP3 models. J. Climate, 24, 39353955, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI3907.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosaka, Y., J. S. Chowdary, S.-P. Xie, Y.-M. Min, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Limitations of seasonal predictability for summer climate over East Asia and the Northwestern Pacific. J. Climate, 25, 75747589, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00009.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kubota, H., Y. Kosaka, and S.-P. Xie, 2016: A 117-year long index of the Pacific–Japan pattern with application to interdecadal variability. Int. J. Climatol., 36, 15751589, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4441.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, E., S. Yeh, J. Jhun, and B. Moon, 2006: Seasonal change in anomalous WNPSH associated with the strong East Asian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21702, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027474.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, C., R. Lu, and B. Dong, 2012: Predictability of the western North Pacific summer climate demonstrated by the coupled models of ENSEMBLES. Climate Dyn., 39, 329346, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1274-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, R. C. Y., W. Zhou, and T. Li, 2014: Influences of the Pacific–Japan teleconnection pattern on synoptic-scale variability in the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 27, 140154, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00183.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, T., and B. Wang, 2005: A review on the western North Pacific monsoon: Synoptic-to-interannual variability. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 16, 285314, https://doi.org/10.3319/TAO.2005.16.2.285(A).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, T., B. Wang, and L. Wang, 2016: Comments on “Combination mode dynamics of the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone.” J. Climate, 29, 46854693, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0385.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, T., B. Wang, B. Wu, T. Zhou, C.-P. Chang, and R. Zhang, 2017: Theories on formation of an anomalous anticyclone in western North Pacific during El Niño: A review. J. Meteor. Res, 31, 9871006, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-017-7147-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liebmann, B., and C. A. Smith, 1996: Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 12751277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, R., 2004: Associations among the components of the East Asian summer monsoon system in the meridional direction. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 155165, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.82.155.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, R., and B. Kim, 2004: The climatological Rossby wave source over the STCZs in the summer Northern Hemisphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 657669, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2004.657.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, R., J.-H. Oh, and B.-J. Kim, 2002: A teleconnection pattern in upper-level meridional wind over the North African and Eurasian continent in summer. Tellus, 54A, 4455, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v54i1.12122.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, R., Y. Li, and B. Dong, 2006: External and internal summer atmospheric variability in the western North Pacific and East Asia. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84, 447462, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.84.447.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., and T. Fukamachi, 2004: Evolution and dynamics of summertime blocking over the Far East and the associated surface Okhotsk high. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 12131233, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.03.101.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitta, T., 1987: Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65, 373390, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.65.3_373.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North, G. R., T. L. Bell, R. F. Cahalan, and F. J. Moeng, 1982: Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 699706, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<0699:SEITEO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramu, D. A., J. S. Chowdary, S. S. V. S. Ramakrishna, and O. S. R. U. B. Kumar, 2018: Diversity in the representation of large-scale circulation associated with ENSO-Indian summer monsoon teleconnections in CMIP5 models. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 132, 465478, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-017-2092-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, A. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. W. Branstator, 1983: Barotropic wave propagation and instability, and atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 13631392, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1363:BWPAIA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, T. C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J. Climate, 21, 22832296, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2100.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, F., and T. Zhou, 2014a: Interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon simulated by CMIP3 and CMIP5 AGCMs: Skill dependence on Indian Ocean–western Pacific anticyclone teleconnection. J. Climate, 27, 16791697, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00248.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, F., and T. Zhou, 2014b: The climatology and interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon in CMIP5 coupled models: Does air–sea coupling improve the simulations? J. Climate, 27, 87618777, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00396.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Srinivas, G., J. S. Chowdary, Y. Kosaka, C. Gnanaseelan, A. Parekh, and K. V. S. R. Prasad, 2018: Influence of the Pacific–Japan pattern on Indian summer monsoon rainfall. J. Climate, 31, 39433958, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0408.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takaya, K., and H. Nakamura, 2001: A formulation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 608627, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0608:AFOAPI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, W., G. Huang, K. Hu, H. Gong, G. Wen, and L. Liu, 2016: A study of biases in simulation of the Indian Ocean basin mode and its capacitor effect in CMIP3/CMIP5 models. Climate Dyn., 46, 205226, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2579-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, K. E., R. J. Stouffer, and G. A. Meehl, 2012: An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 485498, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and X. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 15171536, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1517:PEATHD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and K. Lau, 2001: Interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the western North Pacific–East Asian monsoon. J. Climate, 14, 40734090, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<4073:IVOTAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and T. Li, 2003: Atmosphere–warm ocean interaction and its impacts on Asian–Australian monsoon variation. J. Climate, 16, 11951211, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)16<1195:AOIAII>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., B. Xiang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Subtropical high predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm predictions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 27182722, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1214626110.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., Z. Wen, R. Wu, Y. Guo, and Z. Chen, 2016: The mechanism of growth of the low-frequency East Asia–Pacific teleconnection and the triggering role of tropical intraseasonal oscillation. Climate Dyn., 46, 39653977, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2815-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., P. Xu, W. Chen, and Y. Liu, 2017: Interdecadal variations of the Silk Road pattern. J. Climate, 30, 99159932, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0340.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., Y. Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and S. F. Chen, 2018: Time-varying structure of the wintertime Eurasian pattern: Role of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature and atmospheric mean flow. Climate Dyn., https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4261-9.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, B., T. Li, and T. Zhou, 2010: Relative contributions of the Indian Ocean and local SST anomalies to the maintenance of the western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone during El Niño decaying summer. J. Climate, 23, 29742986, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3300.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. Wang, 2000: Interannual variability of summer monsoon onset over the western North Pacific and the underlying processes. J. Climate, 13, 24832501, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2483:IVOSMO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. Wang, 2002: A contrast of the East Asian summer monsoon–ENSO relationship between 1962–77 and 1978–93. J. Climate, 15, 32663279, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<3266:ACOTEA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., Z.-Z. Hu, and B. P. Kirtman, 2003: Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in East Asia. J. Climate, 16, 37423758, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3742:EOERAI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., G. Huang, Z. Du, and K. Hu, 2014: Cross-season relation of the South China Sea precipitation variability between winter and summer. Climate Dyn., 43, 193207, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1820-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiang, B., B. Wang, W. Yu, and S. Xu, 2013: How can anomalous western North Pacific subtropical high intensify in late summer? Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 23492354, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50431.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S.-P., K. Hu, J. Hafner, H. Tokinaga, Y. Du, G. Huang, and T. Sampe, 2009: Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo–western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 730747, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2544.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S.-P., Y. Du, G. Huang, X.-T. Zheng, H. Tokinaga, K. Hu, and Q. Liu, 2010: Decadal shift in El Niño influences on Indo-western Pacific and East Asian climate in the 1970s. J. Climate, 23, 33523368, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3429.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S.-P., Y. Kosaka, Y. Du, K. Hu, J. S. Chowdary, and G. Huang, 2016: Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor and coherent climate anomalies in post-ENSO summer: A review. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 33, 411432, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-015-5192-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, G.-Y., and B. J. Hoskins, 1996: Propagation of Rossby waves of nonzero frequency. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 23652378, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2365:PORWON>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, J., Q. Liu, S.-P. Xie, Z. Liu, and L. Wu, 2007: Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02708, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028571.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., and X. Jiang, 2014: Prediction of eastern and central Pacific ENSO events and their impacts on East Asian climate by the NCEP Climate Forecast System. J. Climate, 27, 44514472, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00471.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., K.-M. Lau, and M. Sankar-Rao, 1996: Precursory signals associated with the interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 9, 949964, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<0949:PSAWTI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., Z. Zhang, V. E. Kousky, R. W. Higgins, S.-H. Yoo, J. Liang, and Y. Fan, 2008: Simulations and seasonal prediction of the Asian summer monsoon in the NCEP Climate Forecast System. J. Climate, 21, 37553775, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI1961.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: A diagnostic study of the ‘86/87 and ’91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 4962, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.74.1_49.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1999: A diagnostic study of the impact of El Niño on the precipitation in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 16, 229241, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02973084.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., Q. Min, and J. Su, 2017: Impact of El Niño on atmospheric circulations over East Asia and rainfall in China: Role of the anomalous western North Pacific anticyclone. Sci. China Earth Sci., 60, 11241132, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-016-9026-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, G., G. Huang, R. Wu, W. Tao, H. Gong, X. Qu, and K. Hu, 2015: A new upper-level circulation index for the East Asian summer monsoon variability. J. Climate, 28, 99779996, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0272.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 62 62 15
PDF Downloads 57 57 20

Diversity of the Pacific–Japan Pattern among CMIP5 Models: Role of SST Anomalies and Atmospheric Mean Flow

View More View Less
  • 1 Center for Monsoon System Research and State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing, China
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

This study investigates the reproducibility of the spatial structure and amplitude of the observed Pacific–Japan (PJ) pattern in the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. In particular, the role of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) and atmospheric mean flow in the diverse reproducibility of the PJ pattern among models is investigated. Based on the pattern correlation between simulated and observed PJ patterns, models are categorized into high and low correlation groups, referred to as HCG and LCG, respectively. The observed cold SSTAs in the western North Pacific (WNP) and equatorial central Pacific, organized convection and precipitation anomalies, and Rossby wave response are reproduced well in HCG models, whereas these features are not present in LCG models. The summer SSTAs are closely tied to the preceding El Niño–Southern Oscillation and its temporal evolution in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean in both observations and models, but the SSTAs in the Indian Ocean are weak in both HCG and LCG, implying a weak Indian Ocean capacitor effect. As a result, the reproducibility of the amplitude of the WNP center of the PJ pattern is mainly modulated by the SSTAs and local air–sea feedback over the WNP in the models. On the other hand, a model with stronger climatological southerly along the coast of East Asia tends to produce more realistic amplitude of the midlatitude center of the PJ pattern with clearer poleward wave-activity fluxes due to more efficient local barotropic energy conversion from the mean flow.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dr. Lin Wang, wanglin@mail.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

This study investigates the reproducibility of the spatial structure and amplitude of the observed Pacific–Japan (PJ) pattern in the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. In particular, the role of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) and atmospheric mean flow in the diverse reproducibility of the PJ pattern among models is investigated. Based on the pattern correlation between simulated and observed PJ patterns, models are categorized into high and low correlation groups, referred to as HCG and LCG, respectively. The observed cold SSTAs in the western North Pacific (WNP) and equatorial central Pacific, organized convection and precipitation anomalies, and Rossby wave response are reproduced well in HCG models, whereas these features are not present in LCG models. The summer SSTAs are closely tied to the preceding El Niño–Southern Oscillation and its temporal evolution in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean in both observations and models, but the SSTAs in the Indian Ocean are weak in both HCG and LCG, implying a weak Indian Ocean capacitor effect. As a result, the reproducibility of the amplitude of the WNP center of the PJ pattern is mainly modulated by the SSTAs and local air–sea feedback over the WNP in the models. On the other hand, a model with stronger climatological southerly along the coast of East Asia tends to produce more realistic amplitude of the midlatitude center of the PJ pattern with clearer poleward wave-activity fluxes due to more efficient local barotropic energy conversion from the mean flow.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dr. Lin Wang, wanglin@mail.iap.ac.cn
Save