Comparison of Moisture Transport between Siberia and Northeast Asia on Annual and Interannual Time Scales

Jinling Piao Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and School of Earth Science, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Jinling Piao in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Wen Chen Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and School of Earth Science, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Wen Chen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Qiong Zhang Department of Physical Geography, and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Search for other papers by Qiong Zhang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Peng Hu Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and School of Earth Science, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Peng Hu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

The moisture supplies over Siberia and Northeast Asia are investigated by comparing their similarities and differences, enlightened by the seesaw pattern in their summer precipitation. Based on the rotated empirical orthogonal functions in the 3-month standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI_03), Siberia and Northeast Asia are defined as the regions within 55°–70°N, 80°–115°E and 40°–55°N, 90°–115°E, respectively. Our results show that over both regions, evaporation contributes the most to the precipitation amount at the annual time scale, and moisture convergence contributes the most on the interannual time scale. For moisture convergence, both the stationary and transient terms are subject to impacts of the midlatitude westerlies. For the annual cycle, the net moisture supply over both Siberia and Northeast Asia is closely associated with both stationary and transient moisture transport. However, on the interannual time scale, the net moisture convergence is closely related to the stationary term only. The examination of the boundary moisture transport shows that in addition to the zonal component, the meridional stationary moisture transport plays a key role in the net moisture convergence. The transient moisture transport mainly depends on moisture transport through the western and southern boundaries, with a comparable magnitude to that of the stationary one, further confirming the importance of the stationary and transient terms on the moisture supply for the annual cycle. In addition, the circulations responsible for moisture transport anomalies indicate that the stationary moisture circulation is the key factor for the moisture supply anomalies over both Siberia and Northeast Asia, with limited impacts from the transient moisture circulation.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wen Chen, cw@post.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

The moisture supplies over Siberia and Northeast Asia are investigated by comparing their similarities and differences, enlightened by the seesaw pattern in their summer precipitation. Based on the rotated empirical orthogonal functions in the 3-month standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI_03), Siberia and Northeast Asia are defined as the regions within 55°–70°N, 80°–115°E and 40°–55°N, 90°–115°E, respectively. Our results show that over both regions, evaporation contributes the most to the precipitation amount at the annual time scale, and moisture convergence contributes the most on the interannual time scale. For moisture convergence, both the stationary and transient terms are subject to impacts of the midlatitude westerlies. For the annual cycle, the net moisture supply over both Siberia and Northeast Asia is closely associated with both stationary and transient moisture transport. However, on the interannual time scale, the net moisture convergence is closely related to the stationary term only. The examination of the boundary moisture transport shows that in addition to the zonal component, the meridional stationary moisture transport plays a key role in the net moisture convergence. The transient moisture transport mainly depends on moisture transport through the western and southern boundaries, with a comparable magnitude to that of the stationary one, further confirming the importance of the stationary and transient terms on the moisture supply for the annual cycle. In addition, the circulations responsible for moisture transport anomalies indicate that the stationary moisture circulation is the key factor for the moisture supply anomalies over both Siberia and Northeast Asia, with limited impacts from the transient moisture circulation.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wen Chen, cw@post.iap.ac.cn
Save
  • Chuai, X., X. Huang, W. Wang, and G. Bao, 2013: NDVI, temperature and precipitation changes and their relationships with different vegetation types during 1998–2007 in Inner Mongolia, China. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 16961706, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3543.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fujinami, H., T. Yasunari, and T. Watanabe, 2016: Trend and interannual variation in summer precipitation in eastern Siberia in recent decades. Int. J. Climatol., 36, 355368, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4352.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fukutomi, Y., H. Igarashi, K. Masuda, and T. Yasunari, 2003: Interannual variability of summer water balance components in three major river basins of northern Eurasia. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 283296, https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2003)4<283:IVOSWB>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hannachi, A., I. Jolliffe, and D. Stephenson, 2007: Empirical orthogonal functions and related techniques in atmospheric science: A review. Int. J. Climatol., 27, 11191152, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1499.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hiyama, T., H. Fujinami, H. Kanamori, T. Ishige, and K. Oshima, 2016: Recent interdecadal changes in the interannual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation over northern Eurasia. Environ. Res. Lett., 11, 065001, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/6/065001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horel, J. D., 1981: A rotated principal component analysis of the interannual variability of the Northern Hemisphere 500 mb height field. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 20802092, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<2080:ARPCAO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, G., Y. Liu, and R. Huang, 2011: The interannual variability of summer rainfall in the arid and semiarid regions of northern China and its association with the Northern Hemisphere circumglobal teleconnection. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 257268, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-010-9225-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwao, K., and M. Takahashi, 2006: Interannual change in summertime precipitation over Northeast Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16703, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027119.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwao, K., and M. Takahashi, 2008: A precipitation seesaw mode between Northeast Asia and Siberia in summer caused by Rossby waves over the Eurasian continent. J. Climate, 21, 24012419, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1949.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, E.-H., and B.-J. Sohn, 2011: Recent increasing trend in dust frequency over Mongolia and Inner Mongolia regions and its association with climate and surface condition change. Atmos. Environ., 45, 46114616, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.065.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, E.-J., J.-G. Jhun, and C.-K. Park, 2005: Remote connection of the Northeast Asian summer rainfall variation revealed by a newly defined monsoon index.J. Climate, 18, 43814393, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3545.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, R., F. Yu, K. P. Price, J. Ellis, and P. Shi, 2002: Evaluating vegetation phenological patterns in Inner Mongolia using NDVI time-series analysis. Int. J. Remote Sens., 23, 25052512, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160110106087.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, X., W. Zhou, C. Li, and J. Song, 2013: Comparison of the annual cycles of moisture supply over southwest and southeast China. J. Climate, 26, 10 13910 158, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00057.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, X., W. Zhou, D. Chen, C. Li, and J. Song, 2014: Water vapor transport and moisture budget over eastern China: Remote forcing from the two types of El Niño. J. Climate, 27, 87788792, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00049.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X., and M. Yanai, 2002: Influence of Eurasian spring snow cover on Asian summer rainfall. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 10751089, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.784.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X., Z.-Y. Yin, X. Zhang, and X. Yang, 2004: Analyses of the spring dust storm frequency of northern China in relation to antecedent and concurrent wind, precipitation, vegetation, and soil moisture conditions. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D16210, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004615.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Y., G. Huang, and R. Huang, 2011: Inter-decadal variability of summer rainfall in eastern China detected by the Lepage test. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 106, 481488, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-011-0442-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, J.-J., and X.-Q. Gao, 2006: The transportation paths of water vapor and its relation to climate change over north China (in Chinese). Plateau Meteor., 25, 893899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, J.-J., B. Yu, X.-Q. Gao, and J. Li, 2008: Change of large-scale circulation and its impact on the water vapor over north China (in Chinese). Plateau Meteor., 27, 517523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martens, B., and Coauthors, 2017: GLEAM v3: Satellite-based land evaporation and root-zone soil moisture. Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 19031925, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-1903-2017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meehl, G. D., 1994: Influence of the land surface in the Asian summer monsoon: External conditions versus internal feedback. J. Climate, 7, 10331049, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<1033:IOTLSI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miralles, D., T. Holmes, R. De Jeu, J. Gash, A. Meesters, and A. Dolman, 2011: Global land-surface evaporation estimated from satellite-based observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 453469, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-453-2011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mu, S., H. Yang, J. Li, Y. Chen, C. Gang, W. Zhou, and W. Ju, 2013: Spatio-temporal dynamics of vegetation coverage and its relationship with climate factors in Inner Mongolia, China. J. Geogr. Sci., 23, 231246, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-013-1006-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munkhtsetseg, E., R. Kimura, J. Wang, and M. Shinoda, 2007: Pasture yield response to precipitation and high temperature in Mongolia. J. Arid Environ., 70, 94110, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.11.013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Numaguti, A., 1999: Origin and recycling processes of precipitating water over the Eurasian continent: Experiments using an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19571972, https://doi.org/10.1029/1998JD200026.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oshima, K., Y. Tachibana, and T. Hiyama, 2015: Climate and year-to-year variability of atmospheric and terrestrial water cycles in the three great Siberian rivers. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 30433062, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022489.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peixoto, J. P., and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, 520 pp.

  • Peng, S., and Coauthors, 2013: Precipitation amount, seasonality and frequency regulate carbon cycling of a semi-arid grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China: A modeling analysis. Agric. For. Meteor., 178–179, 4655, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.02.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piao, J., W. Chen, K. Wei, Y. Liu, H.-F. Graf, J.-B. Ahn, and A. Pogoreltsev, 2017: An abrupt rainfall decrease over the Asian inland plateau region around 1999 and the possible underlying mechanism. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 34, 456468, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-016-6136-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sato, T., and F. Kimura, 2005: Impact of diabatic heating over the Tibetan Plateau on subsidence over Northeast Asian arid region. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05809, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL022089.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sato, T., and Coauthors, 2007: Water sources in semiarid Northeast Asia as revealed by field observations and isotope transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D17112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008321.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmitz, J. T., and S. L. Mullen, 1996: Water vapor transport associated with the summertime North American monsoon as depicted by ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 9, 16211634, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1621:WVTAWT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serreze, M. C., and A. J. Etringer, 2003: Precipitation characteristics of the Eurasian Arctic drainage system. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 12671291, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.941.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serreze, M. C., D. H. Bromwich, M. P. Clark, A. J. Etringer, T. Zhang, and R. Lammers, 2002: Large-scale hydro-climatology of the terrestrial Arctic drainage system. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8160, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000919.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmonds, I., D. Bi, and P. Hope, 1999: Atmospheric water vapor flux and its association with rainfall over China in summer. J. Climate, 12, 13531367, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1353:AWVFAI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stohl, A., and P. James, 2005: A Lagrangian analysis of the atmospheric branch of the global water cycle. Part II: Moisture transports between Earth’s ocean basins and river catchments. J. Hydrometeor., 6, 961984, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM470.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, S., and Coauthors, 2015: Rapid loss of lakes on the Mongolian Plateau. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 22812286, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1411748112.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tavolato, C., and L. Isaksen, 2011: Data usage and quality control for ERA-40, ERA- Interim and the operational ECMWF data assimilation system. ERA Rep. Series 7, 44 pp., https://www.ecmwf.int/sites/default/files/elibrary/2011/12573-data-usage-and-quality-control-era-40-era-interim-and-operational-ecmwf-data-assimilation.pdf.

  • Tong, K., F. G. Su, D. Q. Yang, L. L. Zhang, and Z. C. Hao, 2014: Tibetan Plateau precipitation as depicted by gauge observations, reanalyses and satellite retrievals. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 265285, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3682.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, and J. Mackaro, 2011: Atmospheric moisture transports from ocean to land and global energy flows in reanalyses. J. Climate, 24, 49074924, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4171.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Ent, R. J., H. H. G. Savenije, B. Schaefli, and S. C. Steele-Dunne, 2010: Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents. Water Resour. Res., 46, W09525, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009127.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vicente-Serrano, S. M., S. Beguería, and J. I. López-Moreno, 2010: A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. J. Climate, 23, 16961718, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2909.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, B., K. Yang, and R. Zhang, 2009: Eurasian snow cover variability and its association with summer rainfall in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26, 3144, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-009-0031-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 25392558, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2539:GPAYMA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamanaka, T., M. Tsujimura, D. Oyunbaatar, and G. Davaa, 2007: Isotopic variation of precipitation over eastern Mongolia and its implication for the atmospheric water cycle. J. Hydrol., 333, 2134, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.07.022.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yatagai, A., and T. Yasunari, 1998: Variation of summer water vapor transport related to precipitation over and around the arid region in the interior of the Eurasian continent. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 76, 799815, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.76.5_799.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ye, H., 2001: Characteristics of winter precipitation variation over northern central Eurasia and their connections to sea surface temperatures over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. J. Climate, 14, 31403155, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3140:COWPVO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoon, J., and S.-W. Yeh, 2010: Influence of the Pacific decadal oscillation on the relationship between El Niño and the Northeast Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 23, 45254537, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3352.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H., M. Tian, J. Guo, and J. Yang, 2012: The dynamic monitoring of Dalinur Lake in Inner Mongolia during 1999–2010 based on RS and GIS (in Chinese). J. Arid Land Resour. Environ., 26, 4146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, Y., H. Wang, W. Zhou, and J. Ma, 2011: Recent changes in the summer precipitation pattern in east China and the background circulation. Climate Dyn., 36, 14631473, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0852-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 804 321 27
PDF Downloads 459 92 11