Differing Impacts of Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols on Global Precipitation and the ITCZ Location via Atmosphere and Ocean Energy Perturbations

Shuyun Zhao Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China, and Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan

Search for other papers by Shuyun Zhao in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Kentaroh Suzuki Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan

Search for other papers by Kentaroh Suzuki in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

This study explores the effects of black carbon (BC) and sulfate (SO4) on global and tropical precipitation with a climate model. Results show that BC causes a decrease in global annual mean precipitation, consisting of a large negative tendency of a fast precipitation response scaling with instantaneous atmospheric absorption and a small positive tendency of a slow precipitation response scaling with the BC-caused global warming. SO4 also causes a decrease in global annual mean precipitation, which is dominated by a slow precipitation response corresponding to the surface cooling caused by SO4. BC causes a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), mainly through a fast precipitation response, whereas SO4 causes a southward shift of the ITCZ through a slow precipitation response. The displacements of the ITCZ caused by BC and SO4 are found to linearly correlate with the corresponding changes in cross-equatorial heat transport in the atmosphere, with a regression coefficient of about −3° PW−1, implying that the ITCZ shifts occur as manifestations of the atmospheric cross-equatorial heat transport changes in response to the BC and SO4 forcings. The atmospheric cross-equatorial heat transport anomaly caused by BC is basically driven by the BC-induced interhemispheric contrast in instantaneous atmospheric absorption, whereas the atmospheric cross-equatorial heat transport anomaly caused by SO4 is mostly attributable to the response of evaporation. It is found that a slab-ocean model exaggerates the cross-equatorial heat transport response in the atmosphere and the ITCZ shift both for BC and SO4, as compared with an ocean-coupled model. This underscores the importance of using an ocean-coupled model in modeling studies of the tropical climate response to aerosols.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0616.s1.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (http://www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Shuyun Zhao, zhaosy@cug.edu.cn

Abstract

This study explores the effects of black carbon (BC) and sulfate (SO4) on global and tropical precipitation with a climate model. Results show that BC causes a decrease in global annual mean precipitation, consisting of a large negative tendency of a fast precipitation response scaling with instantaneous atmospheric absorption and a small positive tendency of a slow precipitation response scaling with the BC-caused global warming. SO4 also causes a decrease in global annual mean precipitation, which is dominated by a slow precipitation response corresponding to the surface cooling caused by SO4. BC causes a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), mainly through a fast precipitation response, whereas SO4 causes a southward shift of the ITCZ through a slow precipitation response. The displacements of the ITCZ caused by BC and SO4 are found to linearly correlate with the corresponding changes in cross-equatorial heat transport in the atmosphere, with a regression coefficient of about −3° PW−1, implying that the ITCZ shifts occur as manifestations of the atmospheric cross-equatorial heat transport changes in response to the BC and SO4 forcings. The atmospheric cross-equatorial heat transport anomaly caused by BC is basically driven by the BC-induced interhemispheric contrast in instantaneous atmospheric absorption, whereas the atmospheric cross-equatorial heat transport anomaly caused by SO4 is mostly attributable to the response of evaporation. It is found that a slab-ocean model exaggerates the cross-equatorial heat transport response in the atmosphere and the ITCZ shift both for BC and SO4, as compared with an ocean-coupled model. This underscores the importance of using an ocean-coupled model in modeling studies of the tropical climate response to aerosols.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0616.s1.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (http://www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Shuyun Zhao, zhaosy@cug.edu.cn

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 152.30 KB)
Save
  • Allen, R. J., 2015: A 21st century northward tropical precipitation shift caused by future anthropogenic aerosol reductions. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 90879102, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023623.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, R. J., A. T. Evan, and B. B. B. Booth, 2015: Interhemispheric aerosol radiative forcing and tropical precipitation shifts during the late twentieth century. J. Climate, 28, 82198246, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0148.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bala, G., K. Caldeira, and R. Nemani, 2010: Fast versus slow response in climate change: Implications for the global hydrological cycle. Climate Dyn., 35, 423434, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0583-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boer, G. J., 1993: Climate change and the regulation of the surface moisture and energy budgets. Climate Dyn., 8, 225239, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00198617.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bond, T. C., and Coauthors, 2013: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 53805552, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50171.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boucher, O., and Coauthors, 2013: Clouds and aerosols. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, T. F. Stocker et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 571–657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broccoli, A. J., K. A. Dahl, and R. J. Stouffer, 2006: Response of the ITCZ to Northern Hemisphere cooling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01702, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024546.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiang, J. C. H., and C. M. Bitz, 2005: Influence of high latitude ice cover on the marine intertropical convergence zone. Climate Dyn., 25, 477496, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-005-0040-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chung, S. H., and J. H. Seinfeld, 2005: Climate response of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic black carbon. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11102, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005441.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, S. K., Y. Ming, I. M. Held, and P. J. Phillipps, 2018: The role of the water vapor feedback in the ITCZ response to hemispherically asymmetric forcings. J. Climate, 31, 36593678, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0723.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donohoe, A., J. Marshall, D. Ferreira, and D. Mcgee, 2013: The relationship between ITCZ location and cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport: From the seasonal cycle to the last glacial maximum. J. Climate, 26, 35973618, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00467.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frierson, D. M. W., and Coauthors, 2013: Contribution of ocean overturning circulation to tropical rainfall peak in the Northern Hemisphere. Nat. Geosci., 6, 940944, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1987.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, B., and J. Marshall, 2017: Coupling of trade winds with ocean circulation damps ITCZ shifts. J. Climate, 30, 43954411, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0818.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hansen, J., and Coauthors, 2002: Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4347, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001143.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasumi, H., 2015: CCSR Ocean Component Model (COCO), version 4.0. Center for Climate System Research Rep. 25, 103 pp., https://ccsr.aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~hasumi/COCO/coco4.pdf.

  • Hawcroft, M., J. M. Haywood, M. Collins, A. Jones, A. C. Jones, and G. Stephens, 2017: Southern Ocean albedo, inter-hemispheric energy transports and the double ITCZ: Global impacts of biases in a coupled model. Climate Dyn., 48, 22792295, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3205-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haywood, J. M., and Coauthors, 2016: The impact of equilibrating hemispheric albedos on tropical performance in the HadGEM2-ES coupled climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 395403, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL066903.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hwang, Y.-T., D. M. Frierson, and S. M. Kang, 2013: Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol and the southward shift of tropical precipitation in the late 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 28452850, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50502.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, S. M., I. M. Held, D. M. W. Frierson, and M. Zhao, 2008: The response of the ITCZ to extratropical thermal forcing: Idealized slab-ocean experiments with a GCM. J. Climate, 21, 35213532, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2146.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, S. M., D. M. W. Frierson, and I. M. Held, 2009: The tropical response to extratropical thermal forcing in an idealized GCM: The importance of radiative feedbacks and convective parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 28122827, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS2924.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, S. M., R. Seager, D. M. W. Frierson, and X. Liu, 2015: Croll revisited: Why is the Northern Hemisphere warmer than the Southern Hemisphere? Climate Dyn., 44, 14571472, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2147-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kay, J. E., C. Wall, V. Yettella, B. Medeiros, C. Hannay, P. Caldwell, and C. Bitz, 2016: Global climate impacts of fixing the Southern Ocean shortwave radiation bias in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). J. Climate, 29, 46174636, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0358.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, D., C. Wang, A. M. L. Ekman, M. C. Barth, and D. Lee, 2014: The responses of cloudiness to the direct radiative effect of sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 11721185, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020529.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, H., S. M. Kang, Y.-T. Hwang, and Y.-M. Yang, 2015: Sensitivity of the climate response to the altitude of black carbon in the northern subtropics in an aquaplanet GCM. J. Climate, 28, 63516359, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0037.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, L., A. Gettelman, Y. Xu, and Q. Fu, 2016: Simulated responses of terrestrial aridity to black carbon and sulfate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 785794, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024100.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahajan, S., K. J. Evans, J. J. Hack, and J. E. Truesdale, 2013: Linearity of climate response to increases in black carbon aerosols. J. Climate, 26, 82238237, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00715.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, J., A. Donohoe, D. Ferreira, and D. McGee, 2014: The ocean’s role in setting the mean position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. Climate Dyn., 42, 19671979, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1767-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ming, Y., V. Ramaswamy, and G. Persad, 2010: Two opposing effects of absorbing aerosols on global-mean precipitation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L13701, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL042895.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Myhre, G., and Coauthors, 2017: PDRMIP: A precipitation driver and response model intercomparison project—Protocol and preliminary results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98, 11851198, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0019.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ocko, I. B., V. Ramaswamy, and Y. Ming, 2014: Contrasting climate responses to the scattering and absorbing features of anthropogenic aerosol forcings. J. Climate, 27, 53295345, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00401.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pall, P., M. R. Allen, and D. A. Stone, 2007: Testing the Clausius-Clapeyron constraint on changes in extreme precipitation under CO2 warming. Climate Dyn., 28, 351363, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-006-0180-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samset, B. H., and Coauthors, 2016: Fast and slow precipitation responses to individual climate forcers: A PDRMIP multimodel study. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 27822791, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068064.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samset, B. H., and Coauthors, 2018: Weak hydrological sensitivity to temperature change over land, independent of climate forcing. npj Climate Atmos. Sci., 1, 20173, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-017-0005-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, T., T. Bischoff, and G. H. Haug, 2014: Migrations and dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone. Nature, 513, 4553, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13636.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherwood, S. C., and N. Nishant, 2015: Atmospheric changes through 2012 as shown by iteratively homogenized radiosonde temperature and wind data (IUKv2). Environ. Res. Lett., 10, 054007, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, C. J., and Coauthors, 2018: Understanding rapid adjustments to diverse forcing agents. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 12 02312 031, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079826.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephens, G. L., and T. D. Ellis, 2008: Controls of global-mean precipitation increases in global warming GCM experiments. J. Climate, 21, 61416155, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2144.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephens, G. L., M. Z. Hakuba, M. Hawcroft, J. M. Haywood, A. Behrangi, J. E. Kay, and P. J. Webster, 2016: The curious nature of the hemispheric symmetry of the earth’s water and energy balances. Curr. Climate Change Rep., 2, 135147, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-016-0043-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stjern, C. W., and Coauthors, 2017: Rapid adjustments cause weak surface temperature response to increased black carbon concentrations. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 11 46211 481, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027326.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suzuki, K., and T. Takemura, 2019: Perturbations to global energy budget due to absorbing and scattering aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 124, 21942209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029808.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suzuki, K., G. L. Stephens, and J.-C. Golaz, 2017: Significance of aerosol radiative effect in energy balance control on global precipitation change. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 18, 389395, https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.780.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takemura, T., and K. Suzuki, 2019: Weak global warming mitigation by reducing black carbon emissions. Sci. Rep., 9, 4419, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41181-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takemura, T., T. Nozawa, S. Emori, T. Y. Nakajima, and T. Nakajima, 2005: Simulation of climate response to aerosol direct and indirect effects with aerosol transport-radiation model. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D02202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takemura, T., M. Egashira, K. Matsuzawa, H. Ichijo, T. O’ishi, and A. Abe-Ouchi, 2009: A simulation of the global distribution and radiative forcing of soil dust aerosols at the Last Glacial Maximum. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 30613073, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-3061-2009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Twomey, S., 1977: The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 11491152, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1977)034<1149:TIOPOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voigt, A., S. Bony, J.-L. Dufresne, and B. Stevens, 2014: The radiative impact of clouds on the shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 43084315, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL060354.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voigt, A., and Coauthors, 2017: Fast and slow shifts of the zonal-mean intertropical convergence zone in response to an idealized anthropogenic aerosol. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 9, 870892, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016MS000902.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Z., L. Lin, M. Yang, Y. Xu, and J. Li, 2017: Disentangling fast and slow responses of the East Asian summer monsoon to reflecting and absorbing aerosol forcings. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11 07511 088, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-11075-2017.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., and Coauthors, 2010: Improved climate simulation by MIROC5: Mean states, variability, and climate sensitivity. J. Climate, 23, 63126335, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3679.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshimori, M., and A. J. Broccoli, 2008: Equilibrium response of an atmosphere–mixed layer ocean model to different radiative forcing agents: Global and zonal mean response. J. Climate, 21, 43994423, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2172.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshimori, M., A. A. -Ouchi, and A. Laîné, 2017: The role of atmospheric heat transport and regional feedbacks in the Arctic warming at equilibrium. Climate Dyn., 49, 34573472, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3523-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1079 326 48
PDF Downloads 1023 203 18