• Barnes, E. A., and D. L. Hartmann, 2011: Rossby wave scales, propagation, and the variability of eddy-driven jets. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 28932908, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-039.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, E. A., and D. L. Hartmann, 2012: Detection of Rossby wave breaking and its response to shifts of the midlatitude jet with climate change. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09117, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017469.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, E. A., and D. W. J. Thompson, 2014: Comparing the roles of barotropic versus baroclinic feedbacks in the atmosphere’s response to mechanical forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 177194, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-070.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, E. A., and I. R. Simpson, 2017: Seasonal sensitivity of the Northern Hemisphere jet streams to Arctic temperatures on subseasonal timescales. J. Climate, 30, 10 11710 137, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0299.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, E. A., D. L. Hartmann, D. M. W. Frierson, and J. Kidston, 2010: Effect of latitude on the persistence of eddy-driven jets. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L11804, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL043199.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bitz, C. M., M. M. Holland, E. C. Hunke, and R. E. Moritz, 2005: Maintenance of the sea ice edge. J. Climate, 18, 29032921, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3428.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., and et al. , 2014: Recent Arctic amplification and extreme mid-latitude weather. Nat. Geosci., 7, 627637, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2234.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., K. Pfeiffer, and J. A. Francis, 2018: Warm Arctic episodes linked with increased frequency of extreme winter weather in the United States. Nat. Commun., 9, 869, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-02992-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coumou, D., V. Petoukhov, S. Rahmstorf, S. Petri, and H. J. Schellnhuber, 2014: Quasi-resonant circulation regimes and hemispheric synchronization of extreme weather in boreal summer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 12 33112 336, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1412797111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., G. Magnusdottir, R. Saravanan, and A. Phillips, 2004: The effects of North Atlantic SST and sea ice anomalies on the winter circulation in CCM3. Part II: Direct and indirect components of the response. J. Climate, 17, 877889, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0877:TEONAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., R. Tomas, M. Alexander, and D. Lawrence, 2010: The seasonal atmospheric response to projected Arctic sea ice loss in the late twenty-first century. J. Climate, 23, 333351, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3053.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., R. Tomas, and L. Sun, 2015: The role of ocean–atmosphere coupling in the zonal-mean atmospheric response to Arctic sea ice loss. J. Climate, 28, 21682186, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00325.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garfinkel, C. I., and D. W. Waugh, 2014: Tropospheric Rossby wave breaking and variability of the latitude of the eddy-driven jet. J. Climate, 27, 70697085, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00081.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, S., Y. Zhang, Q. Wu, and X.-Q. Yang, 2018: The linkage between Arctic sea ice and midlatitude weather: In the perspective of energy. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 11 53611 550, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028743.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, M. M., and C. M. Bitz, 2003: Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models. Climate Dyn., 21, 221232, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-003-0332-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 11791196, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1179:TSLROA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and P. J. Valdes, 1990: On the existence of storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 18541864, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1854:OTEOST>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B., and T. Woollings, 2015: Persistent extratropical regimes and climate extremes. Curr. Climate Change Rep., 1, 115124, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-015-0020-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iqbal, W., W.-N. Leung, and A. Hannachi, 2018: Analysis of the variability of the North Atlantic eddy-driven jet stream in CMIP5. Climate Dyn., 51, 235247, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3917-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, B. M., S. W. Son, S. K. Min, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Kim, X. Zhang, T. Shim, and J. H. Yoon, 2014: Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss. Nat. Commun., 5, 4646, https://doi.org/10.1038/NCOMMS5646.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kretschmer, M., D. Coumou, J. F. Donges, and J. Runge, 2016: Using causal effect networks to analyze different Arctic drivers of midlatitude winter circulation. J. Climate, 29, 40694081, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0654.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kretschmer, M., D. Coumou, L. Agel, M. Barlow, E. Tziperman, and J. Cohen, 2018: More-persistent weak stratospheric polar vortex states linked to cold extremes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 4960, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0259.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, D. J., 2014: Understanding midlatitude jet variability and change using Rossby wave chromatography: Poleward-shifted jets in response to external forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 23702389, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0200.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magnusdottir, G., C. Deser, and R. Saravanan, 2004: The effects of North Atlantic SST and sea ice anomalies on the winter circulation in CCM3. Part I: Main features and storm track characteristics of the response. J. Climate, 17, 857876, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0857:TEONAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manney, G. L., and M. I. Hegglin, 2018: Seasonal and regional variations of long-term changes in upper-tropospheric jets from reanalyses. J. Climate, 31, 423448, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0303.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGraw, M. C., and E. A. Barnes, 2016: Seasonal sensitivity of the eddy-driven jet to tropospheric heating in an idealized AGCM. J. Climate, 29, 52235240, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0723.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meier, W. N., and et al. , 2014: Arctic sea ice in transformation: A review of recent observed changes and impacts on biology and human activity. Rev. Geophys., 52, 185217, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013RG000431.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Overland, J. E., and M. Wang, 2018: Arctic-midlatitude weather linkages in North America. Polar Sci., 16, 19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2018.02.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peings, Y., 2018: The atmospheric response to sea-ice loss. Nat. Climate Change, 8, 664665, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0243-5.

  • Peings, Y., and G. Magnusdottir, 2014: Response of the wintertime Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation to current and projected Arctic sea ice decline: A numerical study with CAM5. J. Climate, 27, 244264, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00272.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peings, Y., J. Cattiaux, S. Vavrus, G. Magnusdottir, and Y. Peings, 2017: Late twenty-first-century changes in the midlatitude atmospheric circulation in the CESM large ensemble. J. Climate, 30, 59435960, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0340.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peings, Y., J. Cattiaux, S. J. Vavrus, and G. Magnusdottir, 2018: Projected squeezing of the wintertime North-Atlantic jet. Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 074016, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aacc79.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Petrie, R. E., L. C. Shaffrey, and R. T. Sutton, 2015: Atmospheric impact of Arctic sea ice loss in a coupled ocean–atmosphere simulation. J. Climate, 28, 96069622, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0316.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ring, M. J., and R. A. Plumb, 2007: Forced annular mode patterns in a simple atmospheric general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 36113626, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS4031.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ronalds, B., E. Barnes, and P. Hassanzadeh, 2018: A barotropic mechanism for the response of jet stream variability to Arctic amplification and sea ice loss. J. Climate, 31, 70697085, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0778.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samarasinghe, S. M., M. C. McGraw, E. A. Barnes, and I. Ebert-Uphoff, 2018: A study of links between the Arctic and the midlatitude jet stream using Granger and Pearl causality. Environmetrics, 40, e2540, https://doi.org/10.1002/ENV.2540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schubert, S., H. Wang, and M. Suarez, 2011: Warm season subseasonal variability and climate extremes in the Northern Hemisphere: The role of stationary Rossby waves. J. Climate, 24, 47734792, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-10-05035.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Screen, J. A., and I. Simmonds, 2010: The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent Arctic temperature amplification. Nature, 464, 13341337, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09051.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Screen, J. A., and I. Simmonds, 2013: Exploring links between Arctic amplification and mid-latitude weather. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 959964, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50174.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Screen, J. A., T. J. Bracegirdle, and I. Simmonds, 2018a: Polar climate change as manifest in atmospheric circulation. Curr. Climate Change Rep. https://doi.org/10.1007/S40641-018-0111-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Screen, J. A., and et al. , 2018b: Consistency and discrepancy in the atmospheric response to Arctic sea-ice loss across climate models. Nat. Geosci., 11, 155163, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0059-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serreze, M. C., and J. A. Francis, 2006: The Arctic amplification debate. Climatic Change, 76, 241264, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-9017-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shepherd, T. G., 2016: Effects of a warming Arctic. Science, 353, 989990, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aag2349.

  • Strong, C., and G. Magnusdottir, 2010: The role of Rossby wave breaking in shaping the equilibrium atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic boundary forcing. J. Climate, 23, 12691276, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2676.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, L., M. Alexander, and C. Deser, 2018: Evolution of the global coupled climate response to Arctic sea ice loss during 1990–2090 and its contribution to climate change. J. Climate, 31, 78237843, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0134.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vallis, G. K., 2017: Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 964 pp.

  • Vallis, G. K., E. P. Gerber, P. J. Kushner, and B. A. Cash, 2004: A mechanism and simple dynamical model of the North Atlantic Oscillation and annular modes. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 264280, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0264:AMASDM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whittleston, D., K. A. McColl, and D. Entekhabi, 2018: Multimodel future projections of wintertime North Atlantic and North Pacific tropospheric jets: A Bayesian analysis. J. Climate, 31, 25332545, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0316.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, Y., and K. L. Smith, 2016: Response of Northern Hemisphere midlatitude circulation to Arctic amplification in a simple atmospheric general circulation model. J. Climate, 29, 20412058, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0602.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zappa, G., F. Pithan, and T. G. Shepherd, 2018: Multimodel evidence for an atmospheric circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss in the CMIP5 future projections. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 10111019, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076096.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X., T. Jung, M. Wang, Y. Luo, T. Semmler, and A. Orr, 2018: Preface to the special issue: Towards improving understanding and prediction of Arctic change and its linkage with Eurasian mid-latitude weather and climate. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35, 14, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-017-7004-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 78 78 13
PDF Downloads 73 73 12

A Role for Barotropic Eddy–Mean Flow Feedbacks in the Zonal Wind Response to Sea Ice Loss and Arctic Amplification

View More View Less
  • 1 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Previous studies have suggested that, in the zonal mean, the climatological Northern Hemisphere wintertime eddy-driven jet streams will weaken and shift equatorward in response to Arctic amplification and sea ice loss. However, multiple studies have also pointed out that this response has strong regional differences across the two ocean basins, with the North Atlantic jet stream generally weakening across models and the North Pacific jet stream showing signs of strengthening. Based on the zonal wind response with a fully coupled model, this work sets up two case studies using a barotropic model to test a dynamical mechanism that can explain the differences in zonal wind response in the North Pacific versus the North Atlantic. Results indicate that the differences between the two basins are due, at least in part, to differences in the proximity of the jet streams to the sea ice loss, and that in both cases the eddies act to increase the jet speed via changes in wave breaking location and frequency. Thus, while baroclinic arguments may account for an initial reduction in the midlatitude winds through thermal wind balance, eddy–mean flow feedbacks are likely instrumental in determining the final total response and actually act to strengthen the eddy-driven jet stream.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Bryn Ronalds, bryn.ronalds@colostate.edu

Abstract

Previous studies have suggested that, in the zonal mean, the climatological Northern Hemisphere wintertime eddy-driven jet streams will weaken and shift equatorward in response to Arctic amplification and sea ice loss. However, multiple studies have also pointed out that this response has strong regional differences across the two ocean basins, with the North Atlantic jet stream generally weakening across models and the North Pacific jet stream showing signs of strengthening. Based on the zonal wind response with a fully coupled model, this work sets up two case studies using a barotropic model to test a dynamical mechanism that can explain the differences in zonal wind response in the North Pacific versus the North Atlantic. Results indicate that the differences between the two basins are due, at least in part, to differences in the proximity of the jet streams to the sea ice loss, and that in both cases the eddies act to increase the jet speed via changes in wave breaking location and frequency. Thus, while baroclinic arguments may account for an initial reduction in the midlatitude winds through thermal wind balance, eddy–mean flow feedbacks are likely instrumental in determining the final total response and actually act to strengthen the eddy-driven jet stream.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Bryn Ronalds, bryn.ronalds@colostate.edu
Save