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Variability of Sea Level and Upper-Ocean Heat Content in the Indian Ocean: Effects of Subtropical Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO

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  • 1 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
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Abstract

In this study, the Indian Ocean upper-ocean variability associated with the subtropical Indian Ocean dipole (SIOD) is investigated. We find that the SIOD is associated with a prominent southwest–northeast sea level anomaly (SLA) dipole over the western-central south Indian Ocean, with the north pole located in the Seychelles–Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR) and the south pole at southeast of Madagascar, which is different from the distribution of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA). While the thermocline depth and upper-ocean heat content anomalies mirror SLAs, the air–sea CO2 flux anomalies associated with SIOD are controlled by SSTA. In the SCTR region, the westward propagation of oceanic Rossby waves generated by anomalous winds over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean is the major cause for the SLAs, with cyclonic wind causing negative SLAs during positive SIOD (pSIOD). Local wind forcing is the primary driver for the SLAs southeast of Madagascar, with anticyclonic winds causing positive SLAs. Since the SIOD is correlated with ENSO, the relative roles of the SIOD and ENSO are examined. We find that while ENSO can induce significant SLAs in the SCTR region through an atmospheric bridge, it has negligible impact on the SLA to the southeast of Madagascar. By contrast, the SIOD with ENSO influence removed is associated with an opposite SLA in the SCTR and southeast of Madagascar, corresponding to the SLA dipole identified above. A new subtropical dipole mode index (SDMI) is proposed, which is uncorrelated with ENSO and thus better represents the pure SIOD effect.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0167.s1.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Lei Zhang, lezh8230@colorado.edu

Abstract

In this study, the Indian Ocean upper-ocean variability associated with the subtropical Indian Ocean dipole (SIOD) is investigated. We find that the SIOD is associated with a prominent southwest–northeast sea level anomaly (SLA) dipole over the western-central south Indian Ocean, with the north pole located in the Seychelles–Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR) and the south pole at southeast of Madagascar, which is different from the distribution of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA). While the thermocline depth and upper-ocean heat content anomalies mirror SLAs, the air–sea CO2 flux anomalies associated with SIOD are controlled by SSTA. In the SCTR region, the westward propagation of oceanic Rossby waves generated by anomalous winds over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean is the major cause for the SLAs, with cyclonic wind causing negative SLAs during positive SIOD (pSIOD). Local wind forcing is the primary driver for the SLAs southeast of Madagascar, with anticyclonic winds causing positive SLAs. Since the SIOD is correlated with ENSO, the relative roles of the SIOD and ENSO are examined. We find that while ENSO can induce significant SLAs in the SCTR region through an atmospheric bridge, it has negligible impact on the SLA to the southeast of Madagascar. By contrast, the SIOD with ENSO influence removed is associated with an opposite SLA in the SCTR and southeast of Madagascar, corresponding to the SLA dipole identified above. A new subtropical dipole mode index (SDMI) is proposed, which is uncorrelated with ENSO and thus better represents the pure SIOD effect.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0167.s1.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Lei Zhang, lezh8230@colorado.edu

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