Recent Increased Covariability of Tropical Cyclogenesis Latitude and Longitude over the Western North Pacific during the Extended Boreal Summer

Haikun Zhao Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disaster/Pacific Typhoon Research Center/Earth System Modeling Center, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Haikun Zhao in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1771-1461
,
Jie Zhang Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Jie Zhang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Philip J. Klotzbach Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Search for other papers by Philip J. Klotzbach in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Shaohua Chen Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Shaohua Chen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

This study examines interdecadal changes in the interannual relationship between the extended boreal summer (May–November) tropical cyclogenesis (TCG) latitude and longitude over the western North Pacific Ocean (WNP) during 1979–2016. Increasing covariability of WNP TCG latitude and longitude is observed since 1998, which is found to be closely linked to shifting ENSO conditions and a tropical Pacific climate regime shift. Accompanied by an increasing occurrence in central Pacific (CP) ENSO events during recent decades, there has been a more consistent northwestward or southeastward shift of WNP TCG location since 1998. These coherent latitude and longitude shifts were generally not evident during 1979–97, a period characterized by a more conventional eastern Pacific (EP) ENSO pattern. Our statistical results show a robust relationship between TCG latitude and the Hadley circulation and between longitude and the Walker circulation during the period prior to and since the regime shift, and a possible physical explanation for the recent increased covariability of TCG latitude and longitude is given. During 1998–2016, there is a significant association of CP ENSO events with the intensity of both the Hadley and Walker circulations that likely caused the recent increase in the covariability of TCG latitude and longitude. However, the strong association of EP ENSO events with the intensity of the Hadley circulation but not with the Walker circulation during 1979–97 weakened the covariability of TCG latitude and longitude. In addition, changes in tropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures appear to also importantly contribute to the recent increased covariability of WNP TCG location.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dr. Haikun Zhao, zhk2004y@gmail.com

Abstract

This study examines interdecadal changes in the interannual relationship between the extended boreal summer (May–November) tropical cyclogenesis (TCG) latitude and longitude over the western North Pacific Ocean (WNP) during 1979–2016. Increasing covariability of WNP TCG latitude and longitude is observed since 1998, which is found to be closely linked to shifting ENSO conditions and a tropical Pacific climate regime shift. Accompanied by an increasing occurrence in central Pacific (CP) ENSO events during recent decades, there has been a more consistent northwestward or southeastward shift of WNP TCG location since 1998. These coherent latitude and longitude shifts were generally not evident during 1979–97, a period characterized by a more conventional eastern Pacific (EP) ENSO pattern. Our statistical results show a robust relationship between TCG latitude and the Hadley circulation and between longitude and the Walker circulation during the period prior to and since the regime shift, and a possible physical explanation for the recent increased covariability of TCG latitude and longitude is given. During 1998–2016, there is a significant association of CP ENSO events with the intensity of both the Hadley and Walker circulations that likely caused the recent increase in the covariability of TCG latitude and longitude. However, the strong association of EP ENSO events with the intensity of the Hadley circulation but not with the Walker circulation during 1979–97 weakened the covariability of TCG latitude and longitude. In addition, changes in tropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures appear to also importantly contribute to the recent increased covariability of WNP TCG location.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dr. Haikun Zhao, zhk2004y@gmail.com
Save
  • Ashok, K., S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, H. Weng, and T. Yamagata, 2007: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C11007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JC003798.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnston, A. G., and S. J. Mason, 2011: Evaluation of IRI’s seasonal climate forecasts for the extreme 15% tails. Wea. Forecasting, 26, 545554, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-10-05009.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai, W., and Coauthors, 2015: ENSO and greenhouse warming. Nat. Climate Change, 5, 849859, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2743.

  • Camargo, S. J., and A. H. Sobel, 2005: Western North Pacific tropical cyclone intensity and ENSO. J. Climate, 18, 29963006, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3457.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J. C. L., 2008: Decadal variations of intense typhoon occurrence in the western North Pacific. Proc. Roy. Soc., 464A, 249272, https://doi.org/10.1098/RSPA.2007.0183.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G., and C.-Y. Tam, 2010: Different impacts of two kinds of Pacific Ocean warming on tropical cyclone frequency over the western North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L01803, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041708.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chu, J. H., C. R. Sampson, A. S. Levin, and E. Fukada, 2002: The Joint Typhoon Warning Center tropical cyclone best tracks 1945–2000. Joint Typhoon Warning Center, https://www.usno.navy.mil/NOOC/nmfc-ph/RSS/jtwc/best_tracks/TC_bt_report.html.

  • Chu, P.-S., 2002: Large-scale circulation features associated with decadal variations of tropical cyclone activity over the central North Pacific. J. Climate, 15, 26782689, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2678:LSCFAW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gao, S., Z. Chen, and W. Zhang, 2018: Impacts of tropical North Atlantic SST on western North Pacific landfalling tropical cyclones. J. Climate, 31, 853862, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0325.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, C.-C., Y.-H. Li, T. Li, and M.-Y. Lee, 2011: Impacts of central Pacific and eastern Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone tracks over the western North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16712, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048821.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, C.-C., Y.-K. Wu, and T. Li, 2016: Influence of climate regime shift on the interdecadal change in tropical cyclone activity over the Pacific Basin during the middle to late 1990s. Climate Dyn., 47, 25872600, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-2986-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoyos, C. D., and P. J. Webster, 2012: Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial maximum through the twenty-first century. Climate Dyn., 38, 15011519, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1181-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsu, P.-C., P.-S. Chu, H. Murakami, and X. Zhao, 2014: An abrupt decrease in the late-season typhoon activity over the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 27, 42964312, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00417.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, C., C. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Chen, and S. He, 2018: Perspective on the northwestward shift of autumn tropical cyclogenesis locations over the western North Pacific from shifting ENSO. Climate Dyn., 51, 24552465, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-4022-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, Z.-Z., A. Kumar, H. L. Ren, H. Wang, M. L’Heureux, and F. F. Jin, 2013: Weakened interannual variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean since 2000. J. Climate, 26, 26012613, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00265.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, Z.-Z., A. Kumar, B. Huang, J. Zhu, and H. L. Ren, 2017: Interdecadal variations of ENSO around 1999/2000. J. Meteor. Res., 31, 7381, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-017-6074-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, B., and Coauthors, 2015: Extended reconstructed sea surface temperature version 4 (ERSST.v4). Part I: Upgrades and intercomparisons. J. Climate, 28, 911930, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00006.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huo, L., P. Guo, S. N. Hameed, and D. Jin, 2015: The role of tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in modulating western North Pacific tropical cyclone genesis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 23782384, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063184.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S. K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 16311643, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kao, H.-Y., and J.-Y. Yu, 2009: Contrasting eastern-Pacific and central-Pacific types of ENSO. J. Climate, 22, 615632, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2309.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, H.-M., P. J. Webster, and J. A. Curry, 2009: Impact of shifting patterns of Pacific Ocean warming on North Atlantic tropical cyclones. Science, 325, 7780, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1174062.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J.-H., C.-H. Ho, and P.-S. Chu, 2010: Dipolar redistribution of summertime tropical cyclone genesis between the Philippine Sea and the northern South China Sea and its possible mechanisms. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D06104, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knutson, T. R., and Coauthors, 2010: Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nat. Geosci., 3, 157163, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo779.

  • Kossin, J. P., K. A. Emanuel, and G. A. Vecchi, 2014: The poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone maximum intensity. Nature, 509, 349352, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13278.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kossin, J. P., K. A. Emanuel, and S. J. Camargo, 2016: Past and projected changes in western North Pacific tropical cyclone exposure. J. Climate, 29, 57255739, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0076.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kug, J.-S., K. P. Sooraj, D. Kim, I.-S. Kang, F.-F. Jin, Y. N. Takayabu, and M. Kimoto, 2009: Simulation of state-dependent high-frequency atmospheric variability associated with ENSO. Climate Dyn., 32, 635648, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0434-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kunitsugu, M., 2012: Tropical cyclone information provided by the RSMC Tokyo–Typhoon Center. Trop. Cyclone Res. Rev., 1, 5159, https://doi.org/10.6057/2012TCRR01.06.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lander, M. A., 1994: An exploratory analysis of the relationship between tropical storm formation in the western North Pacific and ENSO. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 636651, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122<0636:AEAOTR>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, T., and M. J. McPhaden, 2010: Increasing intensity of El Niño in the central-equatorial Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L14603, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, I.-I., and J. C. L. Chan, 2015: Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global warming implications. Nat. Commun., 6, 7182, https://doi.org/10.1038/NCOMMS8182.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, I.-I., I.-F. Pun, and C.-C. Lien, 2014: “Category-6” supertyphoon Haiyan in global warming hiatus: Contribution from subsurface ocean warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 85478553, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061281.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, K. S., and J. C. L. Chan, 2013: Inactive period of western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity in 1998–2011. J. Climate, 26, 26142630, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00053.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lucas, C., B. Timbal, and H. Nguyen, 2014: The expanding tropics: A critical assessment of the observational and modeling studies. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Climate Change, 5, 89112, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.251.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGregor, S., A. Timmermann, M. F. Stuecker, M. H. England, M. Merrifield, F. F. Jin, and Y. Chikamoto, 2014: Recent Walker circulation strengthening and Pacific cooling amplified by Atlantic warming. Nat. Climate Change, 4, 888892, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2330.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., T. Lee, and D. McClurg, 2011: El Niño and its relationship to changing background conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15709, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048275.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mendelsohn, R., K. Emanuel, S. Chonabayashi, and L. Bakkensen, 2012: The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage. Nat. Climate Change, 2, 205209, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1357.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oort, A. H., and J. J. Yienger, 1996: Observed interannual variability in the Hadley circulation and its connection to ENSO. J. Climate, 9, 27512767, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2751:OIVITH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peduzzi, P., B. Chatenoux, H. Dao, A. De Bono, C. Herold, J. Kossin, F. Mouton, and O. Nordbeck, 2012: Global trends in tropical cyclone risk. Nat. Climate Change, 2, 289294, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1410.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharmila, S., and K. J. E. Walsh, 2018: Recent poleward shift of tropical cyclone formation linked to Hadley circulation expansion. Nat. Climate Change, 8, 730736, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0227-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Studholme, J., and S. Gulev, 2018: Concurrent changes to Hadley circulation and the meridional distribution of tropical cyclones. J. Climate, 31, 43674389, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0852.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vecchi, G. A., and B. J. Soden, 2007: Global warming and the weakening of the tropical circulation. J. Climate, 20, 43164340, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4258.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vecchi, G. A., B. J. Soden, A. T. Wittenberg, I. M. Held, A. Leetmaa, and M. J. Harrison, 2006: Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 441, 7376, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04744.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verdon, D. C., and S. W. Franks, 2006: Long-term behaviour of ENSO: Interactions with the PDO over the past 400 years inferred from paleoclimate records. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06712, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025052.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, K. J. E., and Coauthors, 2015: Hurricanes and climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96, 9971017, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00242.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., and J. C. L. Chan, 2002: How strong ENSO events affect tropical storm activity over the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 15, 16431658, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1643:HSEEAT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., J. Liu, H.-J. Kim, P. J. Webster, S.-Y. Yim, and B. Xiang, 2013: Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon intensified by mega-El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 53475352, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1219405110.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C., and D. B. Enfield, 2003: A further study of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool. J. Climate, 16, 14761493, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442-16.10.1476.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C., B. Wang, and L. Wu, 2019: Abrupt breakdown of the predictability of early season typhoon frequency at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Climate Dyn., 52, 38093822, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4350-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weisberg, R. H., and C. Wang, 1997: A western Pacific oscillator paradigm for the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 779782, https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL00689.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilks, D. S., 2006: On “field significance” and the false discovery rate. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 11811189, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2404.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, L., C. Wang, and B. Wang, 2015: Westward shift of western North Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 15371542, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063450.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, L., R. Wang, and X. Feng, 2018: Dominant role of the ocean mixed layer depth in the increased proportion of intense typhoons during 1980–2015. Earth’s Future, 6, 15181527, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EF000973.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiang, B., B. Wang, and T. Li, 2013: A new paradigm for the predominance of standing central Pacific warming after the late 1990s. Climate Dyn., 41, 327340, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1427-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamaguchi, M., F. Vitart, S. T. Lang, L. Magnusson, R. L. Elsberry, G. Elliott, M. Kyouda, and T. Nakazawa, 2015: Global distribution of the skill of tropical cyclone activity on short- to medium-range time scales. Wea. Forecasting, 30, 16951709, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-14-00136.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug, B. Dewitte, M.-H. Kwon, B. P. Kirtman, and F.-F. Jin, 2009: Erratum: El Niño in a changing climate. Nature, 462, 674, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08546.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ying, M., W. Zhang, H. Yu, X. Lu, J. Feng, Y. X. Fan, Y. Zhu, and D. Chen, 2014: An overview of the China meteorological administration tropical cyclone database. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 287301, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00119.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., and H.-Y. Kao, 2007: Decadal changes of ENSO persistence barrier in SST and ocean heat content indices: 1958–2001. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D13106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., and S. T. Kim, 2010: Identification of central-Pacific and eastern-Pacific types of ENSO in CMIP3 models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15705, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044082.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., H.-Y. Kao, T. Lee, and S. T. Kim, 2011: Subsurface ocean temperature indices for central-Pacific and eastern-Pacific types of El Niño and La Niña events. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 103, 337344, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-010-0307-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., M. M. Lu, and S. T. Kim, 2012: A change in the relationship between tropical central Pacific SST variability and the extratropical atmosphere around 1990. Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 034025, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034025.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., P.-K. Kao, H. Paek, H.-H. Hsu, C.-W. Hung, M.-M. Lu, and S.-I. An, 2015: Linking emergence of the central Pacific El Niño to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. J. Climate, 28, 651662, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00347.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Q., L. Wu, and Q. Liu, 2009: Tropical cyclone damages in China 1983–2006. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 489495, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008BAMS2631.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, H., and C. Wang, 2016: Interdecadal modulation on the relationship between ENSO and typhoon activity during the late season in the western North Pacific. Climate Dyn., 47, 315328, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2837-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, H., and C. Wang, 2019: On the relationship between ENSO and tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific during the boreal summer. Climate Dyn., 52, 275288, https://doi.org/10.1007/S00382-018-4136-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, H., P. S. Chu, P. C. Hsu, and H. Muarkami, 2014: Exploratory analysis of extremely low tropical cyclone activity during the late season of 2010 and 1998 over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, 11411153, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014MS000381.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, H., X. Duan, G. B. Raga, and P. J. Klotzbach, 2018: Changes in characteristics of rapidly intensifying western North Pacific tropical cyclones related to climate regime shifts. J. Climate, 31, 81638179, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0029.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, B., and X. Cui, 2008: Hadley circulation signal in the tropical cyclone frequency over the western North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D16107, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009156.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 565 143 22
PDF Downloads 489 121 15