The Corresponding Tropospheric Environments during Downward-Extending and Nondownward-Extending Events of Stratospheric Northern Annular Mode Anomalies

Ruhua Zhang Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Wenshou Tian Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Jiankai Zhang Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Jinlong Huang Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Fei Xie State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China

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Mian Xu Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China

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Abstract

Using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset, this study classifies stratospheric northern annular mode (NAM) anomalies during the negative or positive phase into two categories—anomalies extending into the troposphere [trop event (TE); referred to as negative or positive TEs] and those not extending into the troposphere [nontrop event (NTE); referred to as negative or positive NTEs], and the corresponding tropospheric environments during the TEs and NTEs are identified. Compared with that for the negative NTEs, the upward wave fluxes entering the stratosphere are stronger and more persistent during the negative TEs. Furthermore, the stronger and more persistent upward wave fluxes during the negative TEs are due to more favorable conditions for upward wave propagation, which is manifested by fewer occurrences of negative refractive index squared in the mid- to high-latitude troposphere and stronger wave intensity in the mid- to high-latitude troposphere. However, the tropospheric wave intensity plays a more important role than the tropospheric conditions of planetary wave propagation in modulating the upward wave fluxes into the stratosphere. Stronger and more persistent upward wave fluxes in the negative TEs, particularly wave-1 fluxes, are closely related to the negative geopotential height anomalies over the North Pacific and positive geopotential height anomalies over the Euro-Atlantic sectors. These negative (positive) geopotential height anomalies over the North Pacific (Euro-Atlantic) are related to the positive (negative) diabatic heating anomalies and the decreased (increased) blocking activities in the mid- to high latitudes. The subtropical diabatic heating could also impact the strength of the mid- to high-latitude geopotential height anomalies through modulating horizontal wave fluxes. For positive NAM events, the results are roughly similar to those for negative NAM events, but with opposite signal.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wenshou Tian, wstian@lzu.edu.cn

Abstract

Using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset, this study classifies stratospheric northern annular mode (NAM) anomalies during the negative or positive phase into two categories—anomalies extending into the troposphere [trop event (TE); referred to as negative or positive TEs] and those not extending into the troposphere [nontrop event (NTE); referred to as negative or positive NTEs], and the corresponding tropospheric environments during the TEs and NTEs are identified. Compared with that for the negative NTEs, the upward wave fluxes entering the stratosphere are stronger and more persistent during the negative TEs. Furthermore, the stronger and more persistent upward wave fluxes during the negative TEs are due to more favorable conditions for upward wave propagation, which is manifested by fewer occurrences of negative refractive index squared in the mid- to high-latitude troposphere and stronger wave intensity in the mid- to high-latitude troposphere. However, the tropospheric wave intensity plays a more important role than the tropospheric conditions of planetary wave propagation in modulating the upward wave fluxes into the stratosphere. Stronger and more persistent upward wave fluxes in the negative TEs, particularly wave-1 fluxes, are closely related to the negative geopotential height anomalies over the North Pacific and positive geopotential height anomalies over the Euro-Atlantic sectors. These negative (positive) geopotential height anomalies over the North Pacific (Euro-Atlantic) are related to the positive (negative) diabatic heating anomalies and the decreased (increased) blocking activities in the mid- to high latitudes. The subtropical diabatic heating could also impact the strength of the mid- to high-latitude geopotential height anomalies through modulating horizontal wave fluxes. For positive NAM events, the results are roughly similar to those for negative NAM events, but with opposite signal.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wenshou Tian, wstian@lzu.edu.cn
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