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Interdecadal Variation of Winter Cold Surge Path in East Asia and Its Relationship with Arctic Sea Ice

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  • 1 Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
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Abstract

The paths of winter cold surge (CS) events in East Asia (EA) from 1979 to 2017 are tracked by the Flexible Particle (FLEXPART) model using ERA-Interim daily datasets, and the probability density distribution of the paths is calculated by the kernel density estimation (KDE) method. The results showed that the paths of CSs are significantly correlated with the intensity of the CSs, which shows an interdecadal transition from weak to strong around 1995. CS paths can be classified into two types, namely, the western path type and the northern path type, which were more likely to occur before and after 1995, respectively. Before 1995, the cold air mainly originated from Europe and moved from west to east, and the synoptic features were associated with the zonal wave train. After 1995, cold air accumulated over western Siberia and then invaded EA along the northern path, and the synoptic features were mainly associated with the blocking structure. The geopotential height (GPH) anomalies over the Arctic were abnormally strong. This paper further analyzes the relationship between CSs and winter sea ice concentration (SIC) in the Arctic. The results show that the intensity of CSs is negatively correlated with the Barents SIC (BSIC). When the BSIC declines, the upward wave flux over the Barents Sea is enhanced and expanded to the midlatitude region. GPH anomalies over the Arctic are positive and form a negative AO-like pattern, which is conducive to the formation of the northern path CS. Furthermore, the observed results are supported by numerical experiments with the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.3 (CAM5.3).

© 2020 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Gang Zeng, zenggang@nuist.edu.cn

Abstract

The paths of winter cold surge (CS) events in East Asia (EA) from 1979 to 2017 are tracked by the Flexible Particle (FLEXPART) model using ERA-Interim daily datasets, and the probability density distribution of the paths is calculated by the kernel density estimation (KDE) method. The results showed that the paths of CSs are significantly correlated with the intensity of the CSs, which shows an interdecadal transition from weak to strong around 1995. CS paths can be classified into two types, namely, the western path type and the northern path type, which were more likely to occur before and after 1995, respectively. Before 1995, the cold air mainly originated from Europe and moved from west to east, and the synoptic features were associated with the zonal wave train. After 1995, cold air accumulated over western Siberia and then invaded EA along the northern path, and the synoptic features were mainly associated with the blocking structure. The geopotential height (GPH) anomalies over the Arctic were abnormally strong. This paper further analyzes the relationship between CSs and winter sea ice concentration (SIC) in the Arctic. The results show that the intensity of CSs is negatively correlated with the Barents SIC (BSIC). When the BSIC declines, the upward wave flux over the Barents Sea is enhanced and expanded to the midlatitude region. GPH anomalies over the Arctic are positive and form a negative AO-like pattern, which is conducive to the formation of the northern path CS. Furthermore, the observed results are supported by numerical experiments with the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.3 (CAM5.3).

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Corresponding author: Gang Zeng, zenggang@nuist.edu.cn
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