• Abdillah, M. R., Y. Kanno, and T. Iwasaki, 2017: Tropical–extratropical interactions associated with East Asian cold air outbreaks. Part I: Interannual variability. J. Climate, 30, 29893007, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0152.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barriopedro, D., R. García-Herrera, A. R. Lupo, and E. Hernández, 2006: A climatology of Northern Hemisphere blocking. J. Climate, 19, 10421063, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3678.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyle, J. S., 1986: Comparison of the synoptic conditions in midlatitudes accompanying cold surges over eastern Asia for the months of December 1974 and 1978. Part I: Monthly mean fields and individual events. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 903918, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1986)114<0903:COTSCI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyle, J. S., and T. J. Chen, 1987: Synoptic aspects of the wintertime East Asian monsoon. Monsoon Meteorology. C. P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 125–160.

  • Carlson, T. N., 1991: Mid-Latitude Weather Systems. Harper Collins Academic, 507 pp.

  • Chan, J. C. L., and C. Li, 2004: The East Asian winter monsoon. East Asian Monsoon. C.-P. Chang, Ed., World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 2, World Scientific, 54–106.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., J. E. Erickson, and K. M. Lau, 1979: Northeasterly cold surges and near-equatorial disturbances over the winter MONEX area during December 1974. Part I: Synoptic aspects. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 812829, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1979)107<0812:NCSANE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., J. E. Milard, and G. T. J. Chen, 1983: Gravitational character of cold surges during winter MONEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 293307, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0293:GCOCSD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., P. A. Harr, and H.-J. Chen, 2005: Synoptic disturbances over the equatorial South China Sea and western Maritime Continent during boreal winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 489503, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-2868.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., Z. Wang, and H. Hendon, 2006: The Asian winter monsoon. The Asian Monsoon. B. Wang, Ed., Praxis, 89–127.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C.-P., L. L. Lu, and B. Wang, 2011: The East Asian winter monsoon. The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast. C.-P. Chang, Ed., World Scientific, 99–110.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cheung, H. N., W. Zhou, H. Y. Mok, and M. C. Wu, 2012: Relationship between Ural–Siberian blocking and the East Asian winter monsoon in relation to the Arctic Oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 25, 42424257, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00225.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheung, H. N., W. Zhou, Y. Shao, W. Chen, H. Y. Mok, and M. C. Wu, 2013a: Observational climatology and characteristics of wintertime atmospheric blocking over Ural–Siberia. Climate Dyn., 41, 6379, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1587-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheung, H. N., W. Zhou, H. Y. Mok, M. C. Wu, and Y. Shao, 2013b: Revisiting the climatology of atmospheric blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 30, 397410, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-2006-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davini, P., C. Cagnazzo, S. Gualdi, and A. Navarra, 2012: Bidimensional diagnostics, variability, and trends of Northern Hemisphere blocking. J. Climate, 25, 64966509, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00032.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and et al. , 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diao, Y., J. Li, and D. Luo, 2006: A new blocking index and its application: Blocking action in the Northern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 19, 48194839, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3886.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y. H., 1990: Buildup, air-mass transformation and propagating of Siberian high and its relations to cold surge in East Asia. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 44, 281292, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01026822.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, C., and T. Li, 2009: The extreme cold anomaly over Southeast Asia in February 2008: Roles of ISO and ENSO. J. Climate, 22, 37863801, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2864.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, R. H., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1987: Precipitating cloud systems of the Asian monsoon. Monsoon Meteorology. C.-P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 298–353.

  • Joung, C. H., and M. H. Hitchman, 1982: On the role of successive downstream development in East Asian polar air outbreaks. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 12241237, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1224:OTROSD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K.-M., and M.-T. Li, 1984: The monsoon of East Asia and its global associations—A survey. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 65, 114125, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1984)065<0114:TMOEAA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K.-M., and C.-P. Chang, 1987: Planetary scale aspects of the winter monsoon and atmospheric teleconnections. Monsoon Meteorology, C.-P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 161–202.

  • Lau, N.-C., and K.-M. Lau, 1984: The structure and energetics of midlatitude disturbances accompanying cold-air outbreaks over East Asia. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 13091327, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<1309:TSAEOM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., R. Ren, M. Cai, and Y. Yu, 2019: Climatological features of blocking highs from the perspective of air mass and mass transport. Int. J. Climatol., 40, 782794, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6238.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lim, S. Y., C. Marzin, P. Xavier, C.-P. Chang, and B. Timbal, 2017: Impacts of boreal winter monsoon cold surges and the interaction with MJO on Southeast Asia rainfall. J. Climate, 30, 42674281, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0546.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, M.-M., and C.-P. Chang, 2009: Unusual late-season cold surges during the 2005 Asian winter monsoon: Roles of Atlantic blocking and the central Asian anticyclone. J. Climate, 22, 52055217, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2935.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, D., Y. Yao, and A. Dai, 2015: Decadal relationship between European blocking and North Atlantic Oscillation during 1978–2011. Part I: Atlantic conditions. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 11521173, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-14-0039.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pang, B., and R. Lu, 2019: Two distinct types of extratropical circulation anomalies associated with cold surges over the South China Sea. J. Climate, 32, 50695084, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0041.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, T.-W., C.-H. Ho, and Y. Deng, 2014: A synoptic and dynamical characterization of wave-train and blocking cold surge over East Asia. Climate Dyn., 43, 753770, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1817-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pullen, J., A. L. Gordon, M. Flatau, J. D. Doyle, C. Villanoy, and O. Cabrera, 2015: Multiscale influences on extreme winter rainfall in the Philippines. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 32923309, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022645.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramage, C. S., 1971: Monsoon Meteorology. International Geophysics Series, Vol. 15, Academic Press, 296 pp.

  • Scherrer, S. C., M. Croci-Maspoli, C. Schwierz, and C. Appenzeller, 2006: Two-dimensional indices of atmospheric blocking and their statistical relationship with winter climate patterns in the Euro-Atlantic region. Int. J. Climatol., 26, 233249, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1250.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shoji, T., Y. Kanno, T. Iwasaki, and K. Takaya, 2014: An isentropic analysis of the temporal evolution of East Asian cold air outbreaks. J. Climate, 27, 93379348, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00307.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slingo, J. M., 1998: Extratropical forcing of tropical convection in a northern winter simulation with the UGAMP GCM. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124, 2751, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712454503.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takaya, K., and H. Nakamura, 2005: Mechanisms of intraseasonal amplification of the cold Siberian high. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 44234440, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3629.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tangang, F. T., L. Juneng, E. Salimun, P. N. Vinayachandran, Y. K. Seng, C. J. C. Reason, S. K. Behera, and T. Yasunari, 2008: On the roles of the northeast cold surge, the Borneo vortex, the Madden–Julian Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean Dipole during the extreme 2006/2007 flood in southern Peninsular Malaysia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14S07, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033429.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tibaldi, S., and F. Molteni, 1990: On the operational predictability of blocking. Tellus, 42A, 343365, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v42i3.11882.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilks, D. S., 2006: Hypothesis testing. Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences, International Geophysics Series, Vol. 91, Academic Press, 131–177.

  • Wilks, D. S., 2016: “The stippling shows statistically significant grid points”: How research results are routinely overstated and overinterpreted, and what to do about it. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97, 22632273, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00267.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woollings, T., and et al. , 2018: Blocking and its response to climate change. Curr. Climate Change Rep., 4, 287300, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-018-0108-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, M. C., and J. C. L. Chan, 1995: Surface features of winter monsoon surges over South China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 662680, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<0662:SFOWMS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, M. C., and J. C. L. Chan, 1997: Upper-level features associated with winter monsoon surges over South China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 317340, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<0317:ULFAWW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, Z., W. Huang, B. Wang, R. Chen, J. S. Wright, and W. Ma, 2018: Possible mechanisms for four regimes associated with cold events over East Asia. Climate Dyn., 51, 3556, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3905-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yao, Y., D. Luo, A. Dai, and I. Simmonds, 2017: Increased quasi stationarity and persistence of winter Ural blocking and Eurasian extreme cold events in response to Arctic warming. Part I: Insights from observational analyses. J. Climate, 30, 35493568, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0261.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., K. R. Sperber, and J. S. Boyle, 1997: Climatology and interannual variation of the East Asian winter monsoon: Results from the 1979–95 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 26052619, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2605:CAIVOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, W., J. C. Chan, W. Chen, J. Ling, J. G. Pinto, and Y. Shao, 2009: Synoptic-scale controls of persistent low temperature and icy weather over southern China in January 2008. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 39783991, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009MWR2952.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zwiers, F. W., and H. von Storch, 1995: Taking serial correlation into account in tests of the mean. J. Climate, 8, 336351, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0336:TSCIAI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 71 71 14
Full Text Views 39 39 4
PDF Downloads 48 48 3

Influence of Siberian Blocking on Long-Lived Cold Surges over the South China Sea

View More View Less
  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modelling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • | 2 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modelling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • | 3 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modelling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Cold surges occur frequently over the South China Sea (SCS) in winter, and most of them last only a few days. However, some cold surge events can persist longer, for instance, more than 5 days. This study focuses on these long-lived cold surge events and investigates the associated extratropical circulation anomalies. The results indicate that long-lived cold surges, characterized as strong northerlies over the SCS, can be triggered by a successive high anomaly center over East Asia. Accompanying this is an anomalously extensive and quasi-stationary anticyclone over Siberia in the midtroposphere, hinting at a more frequent occurrence of Siberian blocking. Further analyses reveal that the blocking frequency is indeed significantly high over 90°–150°E from day −4 to day +2 relative to the onset of long-lived cold surge events. Furthermore, there exist significant correlations between the leading occurrence of Siberian blocking and the sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over East Asia, which are directly related to long-lived cold surges. The intensification of the high SLP anomaly over East Asia is found to mainly result from cold advection induced by the anomalous northerly winds along the southeastern edge of the Siberian blocking.

Corresponding author: Bo Pang, pangbo@mail.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

Cold surges occur frequently over the South China Sea (SCS) in winter, and most of them last only a few days. However, some cold surge events can persist longer, for instance, more than 5 days. This study focuses on these long-lived cold surge events and investigates the associated extratropical circulation anomalies. The results indicate that long-lived cold surges, characterized as strong northerlies over the SCS, can be triggered by a successive high anomaly center over East Asia. Accompanying this is an anomalously extensive and quasi-stationary anticyclone over Siberia in the midtroposphere, hinting at a more frequent occurrence of Siberian blocking. Further analyses reveal that the blocking frequency is indeed significantly high over 90°–150°E from day −4 to day +2 relative to the onset of long-lived cold surge events. Furthermore, there exist significant correlations between the leading occurrence of Siberian blocking and the sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over East Asia, which are directly related to long-lived cold surges. The intensification of the high SLP anomaly over East Asia is found to mainly result from cold advection induced by the anomalous northerly winds along the southeastern edge of the Siberian blocking.

Corresponding author: Bo Pang, pangbo@mail.iap.ac.cn
Save