• An, S.-I., and B. Wang, 2000: Interdecadal change of the structure of the ENSO mode and its impact on the ENSO frequency. J. Climate, 13, 20442055, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<2044:ICOTSO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behera, S. K., and T. Yamagata, 2001: Subtropical SST dipole events in the southern Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 327330, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL011451.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bretherton, C. S., and S. Park, 2009: A new moist turbulence parameterization in the Community Atmosphere Model. J. Climate, 22, 34223448, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2556.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, J., Z. Wen, R. Wu, Z. Chen, and P. Zhao, 2014: Interdecadal changes in the relationship between southern China winter–spring precipitation and ENSO. Climate Dyn., 43, 13271338, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1947-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., L. Wang, Y. Xue, and S. Sun, 2009: Variabilities of the spring river runoff system in eastern China and their relations to precipitation and sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 13811394, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1785.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., J. Feng, and R. Wu, 2013: Roles of ENSO and PDO in the link of the East Asian winter monsoon to the following summer monsoon. J. Climate, 26, 622635, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00021.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • England, M. H., C. C. Ummenhofer, and A. Santoso, 2006: Interannual rainfall extremes over southwest Western Australia linked to Indian Ocean climate variability. J. Climate, 19, 19481969, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3700.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, J., J. Li, and H. Xu, 2013: Increased summer rainfall in northwest Australia linked to southern Indian Ocean climate variability. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 467480, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018323.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, N. E., 1994: Decadal scale climate variability in the 1970s and 1980s: Observations and model results. Climate Dyn., 10, 135162, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00210626.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., and et al. , 2013: The Community Earth System Model: A framework for collaborative research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 13391360, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iacono, M. J., J. S. Delamere, E. J. Mlawer, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, and W. D. Collins, 2008: Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer model. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D13103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009944.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jia, X. J., H. Lin, and J. Ge, 2015: The interdecadal change of ENSO impact on wintertime East Asian climate. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 11 91911 935, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023583.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jia, X. J., D. Cao, J. Ge, and M. Wang, 2018: Interdecadal change of the impact of Eurasian snow on spring precipitation over southern China. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 10 07310 089, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028612.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jia, X. J., Y. You, R. Wu, and Y. Yang, 2019: Interdecadal changes in the dominant modes of the interannual variation of spring precipitation over China in the mid-1980s. J. Geophys. Res., 124, 10 67610 695, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JD030901.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and et al. , 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437471, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kay, J. E., and et al. , 2015: The Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large ensemble project: A community resource for studying climate change in the presence of internal climate variability. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96, 13331349, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00255.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, C. Y., 1988: The frequent actions of the East Asian trough and the occurrences of El Niño. Sci. China, 31B, 667674.

  • Liu, X., and Y. Wang, 2011: Contrasting impacts of spring thermal conditions over Tibetan Plateau on late-spring to early-summer precipitation in Southeast China. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 12, 309315, https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, H., and A. Gettelman, 2008: A new two-moment bulk stratiform cloud microphysics scheme in the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM3). Part I: Description and numerical tests. J. Climate, 21, 36423659, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2105.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neale, R. B., and et al. , 2010: Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-486+ STR, 268 pp., www.cesm.ucar.edu/models/cesm1.1/cam/docs/description/cam5_desc.pdf.

  • Park, S., and C. S. Bretherton, 2009: The University of Washington shallow convection and moist turbulence schemes and their impact on climate simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model. J. Climate, 22, 34493469, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2557.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S., C. S. Bretherton, and P. J. Rasch, 2014: Integrating cloud processes in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5. J. Climate, 27, 68216856, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00087.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, P., A. Kumar, A. Barnston, and L. Goddard, 2000: Simulation skills of the SST-forced global climate variability of the NCEP-MRF9 and the Scripps-MPI ECHAM3 models. J. Climate, 13, 36573679, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3657:SSOTSF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qian, Q., R. Wu, and X. Jia, 2020: Persistence and non-persistence of East and Southeast Asian rainfall anomaly pattern from spring to summer. J. Geophys. Res., 125, e2020JD033404, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033404.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, and D. P. Rowell, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4407, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran, and T. Yamagata, 1999: A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401, 360363, https://doi.org/10.1038/43854.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, C., and S. Yang, 2012: Persistent severe drought in southern China during winter–spring 2011: Large-scale circulation patterns and possible impacting factors. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017500.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, Y., Z. Deng, X. Zhou, and Y. Cheng, 2008: Interdecadal variation of ENSO predictability in multiple models. J. Climate, 21, 48114833, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2193.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and X. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 15171536, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1517:PEATHD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and T. Li, 2003: Atmosphere–warm ocean interaction and its impacts on Asian-Australian monsoon variation. J. Climate, 16, 11951211, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)16<1195:AOIAII>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. P. Kirtman, 2007: Observed relationship of spring and summer East Asia rainfall with winter and spring Eurasian snow. J. Climate, 20, 12851304, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4068.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., Z. Z. Hu, and B. P. Kirtman, 2003: Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in East Asia. J. Climate, 16, 37423758, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3742:EOERAI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S.-P., K. Hu, J. Hafner, H. Tokinaga, Y. Du, G. Huang, and T. Sampe, 2009: Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo–western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 730747, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2544.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Z., and K. Fan, 2012: Possible process for influences of winter and spring Indian Ocean SST anomalies interannual variability mode on summer rainfall over eastern China. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 879888.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, F., and K. M. Lau, 2004: Trend and variability of China precipitation in spring and summer: Linkage to sea-surface temperatures. Int. J. Climatol., 24, 16251644, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1094.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, M., and Y. Ding, 2007: A study of the impact of South Indian Ocean dipole on the summer rainfall in China. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 685694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, R., Y. Tao, and J. Cao, 2010: A mechanism for the interannual variation of the early summer East Asia–Pacific teleconnection wave train. J. Meteor. Res., 24, 452458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., 1996: ENSO–snow–monsoon associations and seasonal–interannual predictions. Int. J. Climatol., 16, 125134, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199602)16:2<125::AID-JOC999>3.0.CO;2-V.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You, Y. J., and X. J. Jia, 2018: Interannual variations and prediction of spring precipitation over China. J. Climate, 31, 655670, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0233.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, G. J., and N. A. McFarlane, 1995: Sensitivity of climate simulations to the parameterization of cumulus convection in the Canadian Climate Centre General Circulation Model. Atmos.–Ocean, 33, 407446, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.1995.9649539.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., and A. Sumi, 2002: Moisture circulation over East Asia during El Niño episode in northern winter, spring and autumn. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80, 213227, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.80.213.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: A diagnostic study of the 86/87 and 91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 4962, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.74.1_49.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1999: A diagnostic study of the impact of El Niño on the precipitation in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 16, 229241, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02973084.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zuo, Z., R. Zhang, B. Wu, and X. Rong, 2012: Decadal variability in springtime snow over Eurasia: Relation with circulation and possible influence on springtime rainfall over China. Int. J. Climatol., 32, 13361345, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2355.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 518 518 36
Full Text Views 125 125 24
PDF Downloads 158 158 27

Changes in the Relationship between Spring Precipitation in Southern China and Tropical Pacific–South Indian Ocean SST

View More View Less
  • 1 a Key Laboratory of Geoscience Big Data and Deep Resource of Zhejiang Province, School of Earth Sciences, ZheJiang University, HangZhou, Zhejiang, China
  • | 2 b Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

The present study explores the changed relationship between the interannual variations in spring (April–May) precipitation over southern China (SPSC) and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific and south Indian Oceans during the 1960–2017 period. Observational analysis shows that the relation between SPSC and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was significant before the mid-1980s (P1) and after the early 2000s (P3) but insignificant in between, from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s (P2). In P2, positive anomalous SPSC was significantly correlated with negative anomalous SST in the south Indian Ocean. During this period, an anomalous anticyclone and intensified southwesterly winds tended to appear over tropical India accompanied by a negative anomalous south Indian Ocean SST, which caused anomalous low-level convergence over the western Pacific. As a result, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) tended to weaken and retreat eastward. This resulted in anomalous moisture convergence in southern China, favoring enhanced SPSC. Further analysis shows that the negative south Indian Ocean SST anomalies tended to induce anomalous cross-equatorial vertical circulation where the south Indian Ocean and southern China are controlled by descending and ascending airflow. The ascending motion may also contribute to positive anomalous SPSC. The observed contribution of the south Indian Ocean SST anomalies to the SPSC variation is confirmed by numerical experiments using an atmospheric model. The intensified variance of SST in the south Indian Ocean and the eastward shift of the ENSO-related circulation anomalies over the western tropical Pacific may partly account for the changes in the SST–SPSC relationship.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: XiaoJing Jia, jiaxiaojing@zju.edu.cn

Abstract

The present study explores the changed relationship between the interannual variations in spring (April–May) precipitation over southern China (SPSC) and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific and south Indian Oceans during the 1960–2017 period. Observational analysis shows that the relation between SPSC and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was significant before the mid-1980s (P1) and after the early 2000s (P3) but insignificant in between, from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s (P2). In P2, positive anomalous SPSC was significantly correlated with negative anomalous SST in the south Indian Ocean. During this period, an anomalous anticyclone and intensified southwesterly winds tended to appear over tropical India accompanied by a negative anomalous south Indian Ocean SST, which caused anomalous low-level convergence over the western Pacific. As a result, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) tended to weaken and retreat eastward. This resulted in anomalous moisture convergence in southern China, favoring enhanced SPSC. Further analysis shows that the negative south Indian Ocean SST anomalies tended to induce anomalous cross-equatorial vertical circulation where the south Indian Ocean and southern China are controlled by descending and ascending airflow. The ascending motion may also contribute to positive anomalous SPSC. The observed contribution of the south Indian Ocean SST anomalies to the SPSC variation is confirmed by numerical experiments using an atmospheric model. The intensified variance of SST in the south Indian Ocean and the eastward shift of the ENSO-related circulation anomalies over the western tropical Pacific may partly account for the changes in the SST–SPSC relationship.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: XiaoJing Jia, jiaxiaojing@zju.edu.cn
Save