• Alexander, M. A., I. Bladé, M. Newman, J. R. Lanzante, N.-C. Lau, and J. D. Scott, 2002: The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate, 15, 22052231, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2205:TABTIO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Battisti, D. S., and A. C. Hirst, 1989: Interannual variability in a tropical atmosphere–ocean model: Influence of the basic state, ocean geometry and nonlinearity. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 16871712, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<1687:IVIATA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., 1969: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 163172, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1969)097<0163:ATFTEP>2.3.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai, W., and Coauthors, 2019: Pantropical climate interactions. Science, 363, eaav4236, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav4236.

  • Cane, M. A., and S. E. Zebiak, 1985: A theory for El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. Science, 228, 10851087, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.228.4703.1085.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Capotondi, A., and Coauthors, 2015: Understanding ENSO diversity. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96, 921938, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00117.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, M., P. Xie, J. E. Janowiak, and P. A. Arkin, 2002: Global land precipitation: A 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations. J. Hydrometeor., 3, 249266, https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0249:GLPAYM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chung, P.-H., and T. Li, 2013: Interdecadal relationship between the mean state and El Niño types. J. Climate, 26, 361379, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00106.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dieppois, B., A. Capotondi, B. Pohl, K. P. Chun, P.-A. Monerie, and J. Eden, 2021: ENSO diversity shows robust decadal variations that must be captured for accurate future projections. Commun. Earth Environ., 2, 212, https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00285-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Di Lorenzo, E., G. Liguori, N. Schneider, J. Furtado, B. Anderson, and M. Alexander, 2015: ENSO and meridional modes: A null hypothesis for Pacific climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 94409448, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL066281.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, B., and R. T. Sutton, 2007: Enhancement of ENSO variability by a weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation in a coupled GCM. J. Climate, 20, 49204939, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4284.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, B., and R. Lu, 2013: Interdecadal enhancement of the Walker circulation over the tropical Pacific in the late 1990s. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 30, 247262, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-2069-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, B., R. T. Sutton, and A. A. Scaife, 2006: Multidecadal modulation of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variance by Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08705, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL025766.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fedorov, A. V., and S. G. Philander, 2000: Is El Niño changing? Science, 288, 19972002, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.288.5473.1997.

  • Fedorov, A. V., and S. G. Philander, 2001: A stability analysis of tropical ocean–atmosphere interactions: Bridging measurements and theory for El Niño. J. Climate, 14, 30863101, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3086:ASAOTO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, Y., T. Li, and L. Chen, 2020: Interdecadal modulation of ENSO amplitude by the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO). Climate Dyn., 55, 26892702, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05408-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ham, Y.-G., J.-S. Kug, J.-Y. Park, and F.-F. Jin, 2013: Sea surface temperature in the north tropical Atlantic as a trigger for El Niño/Southern Oscillation events. Nat. Geosci., 6, 112116, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1686.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, F.-F., 1997: An equatorial ocean recharge paradigm for ENSO. Part I: Conceptual model. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 811829, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0811:AEORPF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, F.-F., S. T. Kim, and L. Bejarano, 2006: A coupled‐stability index for ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23708, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437471, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, I.-S., H. No, and F. Kucharski, 2014: ENSO amplitude modulation associated with the mean SST changes in the tropical central Pacific induced by Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. J. Climate, 27, 79117920, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00018.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kessler, W. S., 2002: Is ENSO a cycle or a series of events? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 2125, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015924.

  • Kessler, W. S., M. J. McPhaden, and K. M. Weickmann, 1995: Forcing of intraseasonal Kelvin waves in the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 10 61310 631, https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC00382.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kravtsov, S., 2012: An empirical model of decadal ENSO variability. Climate Dyn., 39, 23772391, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1424-y.

  • Kucharski, F., and Coauthors, 2016: Atlantic forcing of Pacific decadal variability. Climate Dyn., 46, 23372351, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2705-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N.-C., and M. J. Nath, 2003: Atmosphere–ocean variations in the indo-Pacific sector during ENSO episodes. J. Climate, 16, 320, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0003:AOVITI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levine, A. F., M. J. McPhaden, and D. M. Frierson, 2017: The impact of the AMO on multidecadal ENSO variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 38773886, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL072524.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, X., S.-P. Xie, S. T. Gille, and C. Yoo, 2016: Atlantic-induced pan-tropical climate change over the past three decades. Nat. Climate Change, 6, 275279, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2840.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lübbecke, J. F., and M. J. McPhaden, 2014: Assessing the twenty-first-century shift in ENSO variability in terms of the Bjerknes stability index. J. Climate, 27, 25772587, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00438.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mantua, N. J., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace, and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 10691079, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<1069:APICOW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGregor, S., A. Timmermann, M. F. Stuecker, M. H. England, M. Merrifield, F.-F. Jin, and Y. Chikamoto, 2014: Recent Walker circulation strengthening and Pacific cooling amplified by Atlantic warming. Nat. Climate Change, 4, 888892, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2330.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., and Coauthors, 1998: The Tropical Ocean‐Global Atmosphere observing system: A decade of progress. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14 16914 240, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC02906.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., S. E. Zebiak, and M. H. Glantz, 2006: ENSO as an integrating concept in Earth science. Science, 314, 17401745, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132588.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neelin, J. D., D. S. Battisti, A. C. Hirst, F. F. Jin, Y. Wakata, T. Yamagata, and S. E. Zebiak, 1998: ENSO theory. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14 26114 290, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC03424.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, M., G. P. Compo, and M. A. Alexander, 2003: ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate, 16, 38533857, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3853:EVOTPD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Okumura, Y. M., and C. Deser, 2010: Asymmetry in the duration of El Niño and La Niña. J. Climate, 23, 58265843, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3592.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Philander, S. G. H., 1983: El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. Nature, 302, 295301, https://doi.org/10.1038/302295a0.

  • Picaut, J., F. Masia, and Y. du Penhoat, 1997: An advective-reflective conceptual model for the oscillatory nature of the ENSO. Science, 277, 663666, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5326.663.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pyper, B. J., and R. M. Peterman, 1998: Comparison of methods to account for autocorrelation in correlation analyses of fish data. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 55, 21272140, https://doi.org/10.1139/f98-104.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmusson, E. M., and T. H. Carpenter, 1982: Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 354384, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<0354:VITSST>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 16061626, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1606:GARSPP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schopf, P. S., and R. J. Burgman, 2006: A simple mechanism for ENSO residuals and asymmetry. J. Climate, 19, 31673179, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3765.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, T. C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J. Climate, 21, 22832296, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2100.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suarez, M. J., and P. S. Schopf, 1988: A delayed action oscillator for ENSO. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 32833287, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<3283:ADAOFE>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thirumalai, K., P. N. DiNezio, Y. Okumura, and C. Deser, 2017: Extreme temperatures in Southeast Asia caused by El Niño and worsened by global warming. Nat. Commun., 8, 15531, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15531.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timmermann, A., and Coauthors, 2007: The influence of a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on ENSO. J. Climate, 20, 48994919, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4283.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timmermann, A., and Coauthors, 2018: El Niño–Southern Oscillation complexity. Nature, 559, 535545, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0252-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. M. Caron, 2000: The Southern Oscillation revisited: Sea level pressures, surface temperatures, and precipitation. J. Climate, 13, 43584365, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<4358:TSORSL>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., and D. J. Shea, 2006: Atlantic hurricanes and natural variability in 2005. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12704, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026894.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., G. W. Branstator, D. Karoly, A. Kumar, N. C. Lau, and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14 29114 324, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC01444.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Loon, H., and R. A. Madden, 1981: The Southern Oscillation. Part I: Global associations with pressure and temperature in northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 11501162, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<1150:TSOPIG>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verdon, D. C., and S. W. Franks, 2006: Long-term behaviour of ENSO: Interactions with the PDO over the past 400 years inferred from paleoclimate records. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06712, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025052.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J., E. Rasmusson, T. Mitchell, V. Kousky, E. Sarachik, and H. Von Storch, 1998: On the structure and evolution of ENSO-related climate variability in the tropical Pacific: Lessons from TOGA. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14 24114 259, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC02905.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C., 2019: Three-ocean interactions and climate variability: A review and perspective. Climate Dyn., 53, 51195136, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04930-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, H., A. Kumar, W. Wang, and Y. Xue, 2012: Seasonality of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate, 25, 2538, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4092.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., and J.-Y. Yu, 2018: A recent shift in the monsoon centers associated with the tropospheric biennial oscillation. J. Climate, 31, 325340, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0349.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., J.-Y. Yu, and H. Paek, 2017: Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect. Nat. Commun., 8, 14887, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14887.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weisberg, R. H., and C. Wang, 1997: A western Pacific oscillator paradigm for the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 779782, https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL00689.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, M., and L. Wang, 2019: Enhanced correlation between ENSO and western North Pacific monsoon during boreal summer around the 1990s. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Lett., 12, 376384, https://doi.org/10.1080/16742834.2019.1641397.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyrtki, K., 1975: El Niño—The dynamic response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to atmospheric forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 572584, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1975)005<0572:ENTDRO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiang, B., B. Wang, and T. Li, 2013: A new paradigm for the predominance of standing central Pacific warming after the late 1990s. Climate Dyn., 41, 327340, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1427-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, X., and P. Huang, 2021: Restored relationship between ENSO and Indian summer monsoon rainfall around 1999/2000. Innovation, 2, 100102, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug, B. Dewitte, M.-H. Kwon, B. P. Kirtman, and F.-F. Jin, 2009: El Niño in a changing climate. Nature, 461, 511514, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08316.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., P. Kao, H. Paek, H.-H. Hsu, C. Hung, M.-M. Lu, and S.-I. An, 2015: Linking emergence of the central Pacific El Niño to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. J. Climate, 28, 651662, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00347.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, M., N. Jiang, C. Zhu, and J. Su, 2021: Combined impacts of sea surface temperature in tropical Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans on the winter rainfall in southern China under decadal background. Int. J. Climatol., 41, 52015212, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.7124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zanchettin, D., O. Bothe, H. F. Graf, N. E. Omrani, A. Rubino, and J. H. Jungclaus, 2016: A decadally delayed response of the tropical Pacific to Atlantic multidecadal variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 784792, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL067284.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zebiak, S. E., and M. A. Cane, 1987: A model El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 22622278, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<2262:AMENO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, W., J. Li, and F. F. Jin, 2009: Spatial and temporal features of ENSO meridional scales. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15605, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL038672.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 333 329 38
Full Text Views 93 93 20
PDF Downloads 109 109 27

Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Modulates ENSO Atmospheric Anomaly Amplitude in the Tropical Pacific

View More View Less
  • 1 aCollaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters/Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
  • | 2 bSchool of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
Restricted access

Abstract

Previous studies have demonstrated that the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) could affect El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through thermocline adjustment, with a stronger ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) amplitude during a negative AMO phase than during a positive phase. In this study, we find that the ENSO atmospheric anomaly amplitudes in the tropical Pacific during different AMO phases are not necessarily consistent with these ENSO SST changes. For El Niño episodes, the low-level wind and precipitation anomalies over the tropical Pacific in the boreal winter are more pronounced during the negative AMO phase than during the positive phase, corresponding well to the stronger SST anomalies. However, La Niña events during the negative AMO phase are accompanied by weaker atmospheric anomalies in the tropical Pacific, although their SST anomalies are stronger than those during the positive phase. We suggest that this mismatch between La Niña SST and atmospheric anomalies can be largely attributed to AMO decadal modulation. A positive AMO favors intensified trade winds and weakened precipitation in the central tropical Pacific by modifying Walker circulation. Therefore, when La Niña coincides with a positive AMO, the low-level easterly and negative precipitation anomalies are superimposed, which gives rise to stronger atmospheric perturbations. In contrast, under a negative AMO background, the atmospheric anomalies induced by La Niña anomalous SST are partly counteracted by the AMO remote decadal modulation, thereby resulting in weaker anomaly amplitudes. Here, we highlight that AMO decadal forcing needs to be considered when investigating ENSO atmospheric variabilities and related regional climate impacts.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Xin Geng, gengxin@nuist.edu.cn; Wenjun Zhang, zhangwj@nuist.edu.cn

Abstract

Previous studies have demonstrated that the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) could affect El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through thermocline adjustment, with a stronger ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) amplitude during a negative AMO phase than during a positive phase. In this study, we find that the ENSO atmospheric anomaly amplitudes in the tropical Pacific during different AMO phases are not necessarily consistent with these ENSO SST changes. For El Niño episodes, the low-level wind and precipitation anomalies over the tropical Pacific in the boreal winter are more pronounced during the negative AMO phase than during the positive phase, corresponding well to the stronger SST anomalies. However, La Niña events during the negative AMO phase are accompanied by weaker atmospheric anomalies in the tropical Pacific, although their SST anomalies are stronger than those during the positive phase. We suggest that this mismatch between La Niña SST and atmospheric anomalies can be largely attributed to AMO decadal modulation. A positive AMO favors intensified trade winds and weakened precipitation in the central tropical Pacific by modifying Walker circulation. Therefore, when La Niña coincides with a positive AMO, the low-level easterly and negative precipitation anomalies are superimposed, which gives rise to stronger atmospheric perturbations. In contrast, under a negative AMO background, the atmospheric anomalies induced by La Niña anomalous SST are partly counteracted by the AMO remote decadal modulation, thereby resulting in weaker anomaly amplitudes. Here, we highlight that AMO decadal forcing needs to be considered when investigating ENSO atmospheric variabilities and related regional climate impacts.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Xin Geng, gengxin@nuist.edu.cn; Wenjun Zhang, zhangwj@nuist.edu.cn

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 362 KB)
Save