• Abid, M. A., F. Kucharski, F. Molteni, I.-S. Kang, A. M. Tompkins, and M. Almazroui, 2021: Separating the Indian and Pacific Ocean impacts on the Euro-Atlantic response to ENSO and its transition from early to late winter. J. Climate, 34, 1531–1548, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0075.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2018: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly analysis (new version 2.3) and a review of 2017 global precipitation. Atmosphere, 9, 138, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040138.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ayarzaguena, B., S. Ineson, N. J. Dunstone, M. P. Baldwin, and A. A. Scaife, 2018: Intraseasonal effects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on North Atlantic climate. J. Climate, 31, 88618873, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0097.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai, W., P. van Rensch, T. Cowan, and H. H. Hendon, 2011: Teleconnection pathways of ENSO and the IOD and the mechanisms for impacts on Australian rainfall. J. Climate, 24, 39103923, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4129.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S. F., R. Wu, W. Chen, K. Hu, and B. Yu, 2020: Structure and dynamics of a springtime atmospheric wave train over the North Atlantic and Eurasia. Climate Dyn., 54, 51115126, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05274-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., H. F. Graf, and R. H. Huang, 2000: The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon and its relation to the summer monsoon. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 17, 4860, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-000-0042-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., S. Yang, and R. H. Huang, 2005: Relationship between stationary planetary wave activity and the East Asian winter monsoon. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., J. Feng, and R. G. Wu, 2013: Roles of ENSO and PDO in the link of the East Asian winter monsoon to the following summer monsoon. J. Climate, 26, 622635, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00021.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Z., R. Wu, and W. Chen, 2014: Distinguishing interannual variations of the northern and southern modes of the East Asian winter monsoon. J. Climate, 27, 835851, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00314.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., and J. M. Wallace, 1990: Large-scale atmospheric circulation features of warm and cold episodes in the tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 3, 12541281, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1990)003<1254:LSACFO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Q. H., and B. Wang, 2005: Circumglobal teleconnection in the Northern Hemisphere summer. J. Climate, 18, 34833505, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3473.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, S., W. Chen, H.-F. Graf, Y. Guo, and D. Nath, 2017: Distinct winter patterns of tropical Pacific convection anomaly and the associated extratropical wave trains in the Northern Hemisphere. Climate Dyn., 51, 20032022, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3995-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, Y., S.-P. Xie, Y.-L. Yang, X.-T. Zheng, L. Liu, and G. Huang, 2013: Indian Ocean variability in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: The basin mode. J. Climate, 26, 72407266, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00678.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, J., W. Chen, and Y. Li, 2017: Asymmetry of the winter extra-tropical teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere associated with two types of ENSO. Climate Dyn., 48, 21352151, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3196-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrett, S., M. Collins, H.-L. Ren, B. Wu, and T. Zhou, 2020: The role of tropical mean-state biases in modeled winter Northern Hemisphere El Niño teleconnections. J. Climate, 33, 47514768, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0668.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garfinkel, C. I., A. H. Butler, D. W. Waugh, M. M. Hurwitz, and L. M. Polvani, 2012: Why might stratospheric sudden warmings occur with similar frequency in El Niño and La Niña winters? J. Geophys. Res., 117, D19106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017777.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ham, Y.-G., and J.-S. Kug, 2011: How well do current climate models simulate two types of El Niño? Climate Dyn., 39, 383398, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1157-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ham, Y.-G., and J.-S. Kug, 2015a: Improvement of ENSO simulation based on intermodel diversity. J. Climate, 28, 9981015, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00376.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ham, Y.-G., and J.-S. Kug, 2015b: Role of north tropical Atlantic SST on the ENSO simulated using CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. Climate Dyn., 45, 31033117, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2527-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ham, Y.-G., J.-Y. Choi, and J.-S. Kug, 2017: The weakening of the ENSO–Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) coupling strength in recent decades. Climate Dyn., 49, 249261, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3339-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herold, N., and A. Santoso, 2018: Indian Ocean warming during peak El Niño cools surrounding land masses. Climate Dyn., 51, 20972112, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-4001-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoerling, M. P., A. Kumar, and M. Zhong, 1997: El Niño, La Niña, and the nonlinearity of their teleconnections. J. Climate, 10, 17691786, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1769:ENOLNA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horel, J. D., and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 813829, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 11791196, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1179:TSLROA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jia, X., H. Lin, and X. Yao, 2014: The influence of tropical Pacific SST anomaly on surface air temperature in China. J. Climate, 27, 14251444, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00176.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jia, X., S. Wang, H. Lin, and Q. Bao, 2015: A connection between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the winter climate in the Asian-Pacific region. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 430448, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022324.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S.-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 16311644, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J.-W., and S.-I. An, 2019: Western North Pacific anticyclone change associated with the El Niño–Indian Ocean Dipole coupling. Int. J. Climatol., 39, 25052521, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5967.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, S., H.-Y. Son, and J.-S. Kug, 2018: Relative roles of equatorial central Pacific and western North Pacific precipitation anomalies in ENSO teleconnection over the North Pacific. Climate Dyn., 51, 43454355, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3779-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King, M. P., and Coauthors, 2018: Importance of late fall ENSO teleconnection in the Euro-Atlantic sector. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 13371344, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0020.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., J. Li, F. Jin, and S. Zhao, 2015: Interhemispheric propagation of the stationary Rossby waves in a horizontally non-uniform basic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 32333256, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-14-0239.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, T., W. Chen, J. Feng, and R. Wu, 2018: Modulation effects of the East Asian winter monsoon on El Niño-related rainfall anomalies in southeastern China. Sci. Rep., 8, 14 107–14 107, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32492-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paldor, N., 2015 : Shallow Water Waves on the Rotating Earth. Springer, 83 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Paldor, N., 2019: Recent advances in linear wave theory on the spherical Earth. Deep-Sea Res. II, 160, 6367, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2018.10.009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmusson, E. M., and J. M. Wallace, 1983: Meteorological aspects of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Science, 222, 11951202, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.222.4629.1195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayner, N. A., and Coauthors, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4407, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 16061626, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1606:GARSPP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran, and T. Yamagata, 1999: A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401, 360363, https://doi.org/10.1038/43854.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shiozaki, M., T. Enomoto, and K. Takaya, 2021: Disparate midlatitude responses to the eastern Pacific El Niño. J. Climate, 34, 773786, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0246.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Son, H.-Y., J.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kug, J. Yoo, and C.-H. Kim, 2014: Winter precipitation variability over Korean Peninsula associated with ENSO. Climate Dyn., 42, 31713186, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-2008-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, L., and R. Wu, 2018: Comparison of intraseasonal East Asian winter cold temperature anomalies in positive and negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 85188537, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takaya, K., and H. Nakamura, 2001: A formulation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 608627, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0608:AFOAPI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tian, B., and K. Fan, 2019: Different prediction skill for the East Asian winter monsoon in the early and late winter season. Climate Dyn., 54, 15231538, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-05068-6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. G. Wu, and X. H. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 15171536, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1517:PEATHD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and S. F. Chen, 2019: Time-varying structure of the wintertime Eurasian pattern: Role of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature and atmospheric mean flow. Climate Dyn., 52, 24672479, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4261-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., and F.-F. Jin, 2002: Role of Indian Ocean warming in the development of Philippine Sea anticyclone during ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1478, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014318.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, B., and J. Wang, 2002: Winter Arctic Oscillation, Siberian high and East Asian winter monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 3-13-4, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015373.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, B., T. Zhou, and T. Li, 2012: Two distinct modes of tropical Indian Ocean precipitation in boreal winter and their impacts on equatorial western Pacific. J. Climate, 25, 921938, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00065.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, B., T. Zhou, and T. Li, 2017: Atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic processes driving the western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone during El Niño. Part I: Maintenance mechanisms. J. Climate, 30, 96219635, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0489.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., Z. Z. Hu, and B. P. Kirtman, 2003: Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in East Asia. J. Climate, 16, 37423758, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3742:EOERAI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., B. P. Kirtman, and K. Pegion, 2006: Local air–sea relationship in observations and model simulations. J. Climate, 19, 49144932, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3904.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S.-P., K. M. Hu, J. Hafner, H. Tokinaga, Y. Du, G. Huang, and T. Sampe, 2009: Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo-western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 730747, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2544.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, S., and J. Sun, 2021: Conditional impact of boreal autumn North Atlantic SST anomaly on winter tropospheric Asian polar vortex. Climate Dyn., 56, 855871, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05507-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuan, Y., S. Yang, and Z. Zhang, 2012: Different evolutions of the Philippine Sea anticyclone between the eastern and central Pacific El Niño: Possible effects of Indian Ocean SST. J. Climate, 25, 78677883, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00004.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: A diagnostic study of the ’86/87 and ’91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 4962, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.74.1_49.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., Q. Min, and J. Su, 2017: Impact of El Niño on atmospheric circulations over East Asia and rainfall in China: Role of the anomalous western North Pacific anticyclone. Sci. China Earth Sci., 60, 11241132, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-016-9026-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, S., J. Li, and Y. Li, 2015: Dynamics of an interhemispheric teleconnection across the critical latitude through a southerly duct during boreal winter. J. Climate, 28, 74377456, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00425.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, W., W. Chen, S. Chen, S. Yao, and D. Nath, 2020: Combined impact of tropical central-eastern Pacific and North Atlantic sea surface temperature on precipitation variation in monsoon transitional zone over China during August–September. Int. J. Climatol., 40, 13161327, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6231.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, J., Q. Liu, C. Wang, and X.-T. Zheng, 2012: Impact of heating anomalies associated with rainfall variations over the Indo-western Pacific on Asian atmospheric circulation in winter. Climate Dyn., 40, 20232033, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1478-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, L., and R. Wu, 2010: Respective impacts of the East Asian winter monsoon and ENSO on winter rainfall in China. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D02107, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 276 277 99
Full Text Views 126 126 40
PDF Downloads 168 168 40

Different ENSO Teleconnections over East Asia in Early and Late Winter: Role of Precipitation Anomalies in the Tropical Indian Ocean and Far Western Pacific

Tianjiao MaaCenter for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Tianjiao Ma in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Wen ChenaCenter for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
bCollege of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
cDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China

Search for other papers by Wen Chen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Shangfeng ChenaCenter for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Shangfeng Chen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Chaim I. GarfinkeldFredy and Nadine Herrmann Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

Search for other papers by Chaim I. Garfinkel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Shuoyi DingeInstitute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Search for other papers by Shuoyi Ding in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lei SongaCenter for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Lei Song in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Zhibo LifDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Zhibo Li in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yulian TangaCenter for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
bCollege of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Yulian Tang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jingliang HuangfuaCenter for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Jingliang Huangfu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hainan GongaCenter for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Hainan Gong in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Wei ZhaogNational Meteorological Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Wei Zhao in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

This study aims to better understand the ENSO impacts on climate anomalies over East Asia in early winter (November–December) and late winter (January–February). In particular, the possible mechanisms during early winter are investigated. The results show that ENSO is associated with a Rossby wave train emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean toward East Asia (denoted as tIO-EA) in early winter. This tIO-EA wave train in El Niño (La Niña) is closely related to a weakening (strengthening) of the East Asian trough, and thereby a weakened (strengthened) East Asian winter monsoon and warm (cold) temperature anomalies over northeastern China and Japan. By using partial regression analysis and numerical experiments, we identify that the formation of tIO-EA wave train is closely related to precipitation anomalies in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific (denoted as eIO/wP). In addition, the ENSO-induced North Atlantic anomalies may also contribute to formation of the tIO-EA wave train in conjunction with the eIO/wP precipitation. The response of eIO/wP precipitation to ENSO is stronger in early winter than in late winter. This can be attributed to the stronger anomalous Walker circulation over the Indian Ocean, which in turn is caused by higher climatological SST and stronger mean precipitation state in the Indian Ocean during early winter.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wen Chen, cw@post.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

This study aims to better understand the ENSO impacts on climate anomalies over East Asia in early winter (November–December) and late winter (January–February). In particular, the possible mechanisms during early winter are investigated. The results show that ENSO is associated with a Rossby wave train emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean toward East Asia (denoted as tIO-EA) in early winter. This tIO-EA wave train in El Niño (La Niña) is closely related to a weakening (strengthening) of the East Asian trough, and thereby a weakened (strengthened) East Asian winter monsoon and warm (cold) temperature anomalies over northeastern China and Japan. By using partial regression analysis and numerical experiments, we identify that the formation of tIO-EA wave train is closely related to precipitation anomalies in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific (denoted as eIO/wP). In addition, the ENSO-induced North Atlantic anomalies may also contribute to formation of the tIO-EA wave train in conjunction with the eIO/wP precipitation. The response of eIO/wP precipitation to ENSO is stronger in early winter than in late winter. This can be attributed to the stronger anomalous Walker circulation over the Indian Ocean, which in turn is caused by higher climatological SST and stronger mean precipitation state in the Indian Ocean during early winter.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wen Chen, cw@post.iap.ac.cn

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 2.45 MB)
Save