Relative Contribution of Moisture Transport during TC-Active and TC-Inactive Periods to the Precipitation in Henan Province of North China: Mean State and an Extreme Event

Yangruixue Chen aPlateau Atmosphere and Environment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, China
bState Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China

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Bo Liu bState Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
cDepartment of Atmospheric Science/Centre for Severe Weather and Climate and Hydro-Geological Hazards, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China

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https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9258-8902
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Yali Luo dCollaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, NUIST, Nanjing, China
eFujian Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, and Key Laboratory of Straits Severe Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Fuzhou, China

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Cristian Martinez-Villalobos fFaculty of Engineering and Sciences, Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Peñalolen, Santiago, Chile
gData Observatory Foundation, Santiago, Chile

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Guoyu Ren cDepartment of Atmospheric Science/Centre for Severe Weather and Climate and Hydro-Geological Hazards, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China
hLaboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China

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Yongjie Huang iCenter for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

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Sihan Zhang cDepartment of Atmospheric Science/Centre for Severe Weather and Climate and Hydro-Geological Hazards, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China

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Yong Sun jState Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau Earth System, Resources and Environment, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Zhongshi Zhang cDepartment of Atmospheric Science/Centre for Severe Weather and Climate and Hydro-Geological Hazards, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China

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Abstract

A Lagrangian model—the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT)—is used to quantify changes in moisture sources and paths for precipitation over North China’s Henan Province associated with tropical cyclone (TC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) during July–August of 1979–2021. During TC-active periods, an anomalous cyclone over the WNP enhances southeasterly and reduces southwesterly moisture transport to Henan. Accordingly, compared to TC-inactive periods, moisture contributions from the Pacific Ocean (PO), eastern China (EC), and the local area (Local) are significantly enhanced by 48.32% (16.73% versus 11.28%), 20.42% (9.44% versus 7.84%), and 2.89% (4.91% versus 4.77%), respectively, while moisture contributions from the Indian Ocean (IO), Southwestern China (SWC), Eurasia (EA), and the South China Sea (SCS) are significantly reduced by −31.90% (8.61% versus 12.64%), −16.27% (4.60% versus 5.50%), −8.81% (19.10% versus 20.95%), and −6.92% (12.18% versus 13.09%). Furthermore, the moisture transport for a catastrophic extreme rainfall event during 17–22 July (“21⋅7” event) influenced by Typhoon Infa is investigated. Compared to the mean state during TC-active periods, the moisture contribution from the PO was substantially increased by 126.32% (37.87% versus 16.73%), while that from IO significantly decreased by −98.26% (0.15% versus 8.61%) during the “21⋅7” event. Analyses with a bootstrap resampling method show that moisture contributions from the PO fall outside the +6σ range, for both the TC-active and TC-inactive probability distributions. Thus, the “21⋅7” event is rare and extreme in terms of the moisture contribution from the PO, with the occurrence probability being less than 1 in 1 million times.

Significance Statement

Henan, one of the most populated provinces in China, experienced a catastrophic extreme precipitation event in July 2021 (the “21⋅7” event), coinciding with the activity of a tropical cyclone (TC) over the western North Pacific, which helps establish the moisture channel. Using a Lagrangian model, we provide a better understanding of how moisture transport changes associated with TC for the mean state of 1979–2021, and reveal how extreme is the moisture transport for the “21⋅7” event with the bootstrap technique. It is found that during active TC periods, the moisture contribution from the Pacific Ocean (the Indian Ocean) is significantly enhanced (reduced). For every 1 000 000 six-day events, less than one instance like the “21⋅7” event should be expected.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Bo Liu, boliu@cug.edu.cn; Yali Luo, ylluo@cma.gov.cn

Abstract

A Lagrangian model—the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT)—is used to quantify changes in moisture sources and paths for precipitation over North China’s Henan Province associated with tropical cyclone (TC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) during July–August of 1979–2021. During TC-active periods, an anomalous cyclone over the WNP enhances southeasterly and reduces southwesterly moisture transport to Henan. Accordingly, compared to TC-inactive periods, moisture contributions from the Pacific Ocean (PO), eastern China (EC), and the local area (Local) are significantly enhanced by 48.32% (16.73% versus 11.28%), 20.42% (9.44% versus 7.84%), and 2.89% (4.91% versus 4.77%), respectively, while moisture contributions from the Indian Ocean (IO), Southwestern China (SWC), Eurasia (EA), and the South China Sea (SCS) are significantly reduced by −31.90% (8.61% versus 12.64%), −16.27% (4.60% versus 5.50%), −8.81% (19.10% versus 20.95%), and −6.92% (12.18% versus 13.09%). Furthermore, the moisture transport for a catastrophic extreme rainfall event during 17–22 July (“21⋅7” event) influenced by Typhoon Infa is investigated. Compared to the mean state during TC-active periods, the moisture contribution from the PO was substantially increased by 126.32% (37.87% versus 16.73%), while that from IO significantly decreased by −98.26% (0.15% versus 8.61%) during the “21⋅7” event. Analyses with a bootstrap resampling method show that moisture contributions from the PO fall outside the +6σ range, for both the TC-active and TC-inactive probability distributions. Thus, the “21⋅7” event is rare and extreme in terms of the moisture contribution from the PO, with the occurrence probability being less than 1 in 1 million times.

Significance Statement

Henan, one of the most populated provinces in China, experienced a catastrophic extreme precipitation event in July 2021 (the “21⋅7” event), coinciding with the activity of a tropical cyclone (TC) over the western North Pacific, which helps establish the moisture channel. Using a Lagrangian model, we provide a better understanding of how moisture transport changes associated with TC for the mean state of 1979–2021, and reveal how extreme is the moisture transport for the “21⋅7” event with the bootstrap technique. It is found that during active TC periods, the moisture contribution from the Pacific Ocean (the Indian Ocean) is significantly enhanced (reduced). For every 1 000 000 six-day events, less than one instance like the “21⋅7” event should be expected.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Bo Liu, boliu@cug.edu.cn; Yali Luo, ylluo@cma.gov.cn

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