The Atmospheric Boundary Layer and the Initiation of the MJO

Richard H. Johnson aColorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Simon P. de Szoeke bOregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon

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Paul E. Ciesielski aColorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

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W. Alan Brewer cNOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado

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Abstract

The Indian Ocean is a frequent site for the initiation of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The evolution of convection during MJO initiation is intimately linked to the subcloud atmospheric mixed layer (ML). Much of the air entering developing cumulus clouds passes through the cloud base; hence, the properties of the ML are critical in determining the nature of cloud development. The properties and depth of the ML are influenced by horizontal advection, precipitation-driven cold pools, and vertical motion. To address ML behavior during the initiation of the MJO, data from the 2011/12 Dynamics of the MJO Experiment (DYNAMO) are utilized. Observations from the research vessel Revelle are used to document the ML and its modification during the time leading up to the onset phase of the October MJO. The mixed layer depth increased from ∼500 to ∼700 m during the 1–12 October suppressed period, allowing a greater proportion of boundary layer thermals to reach the lifting condensation level and hence promote cloud growth. The ML heat budget defines an equilibrium mixed layer depth that accurately diagnoses the mixed layer depth over the DYNAMO convectively suppressed period, provided that horizontal advection is included. The advection at the Revelle is significantly influenced by low-level convective outflows from the southern ITCZ. The findings also demonstrate a connection between cirrus clouds and their remote impact on ML depth and convective development through a reduction in the ML radiative cooling rate. The emergent behavior of the equilibrium mixed layer has implications for simulating the MJO with models with parameterized cloud and turbulent-scale motions.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

This article is included in the DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation Special Collection.

Corresponding author: Richard H. Johnson, Richard.H.Johnson@colostate.edu

Abstract

The Indian Ocean is a frequent site for the initiation of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The evolution of convection during MJO initiation is intimately linked to the subcloud atmospheric mixed layer (ML). Much of the air entering developing cumulus clouds passes through the cloud base; hence, the properties of the ML are critical in determining the nature of cloud development. The properties and depth of the ML are influenced by horizontal advection, precipitation-driven cold pools, and vertical motion. To address ML behavior during the initiation of the MJO, data from the 2011/12 Dynamics of the MJO Experiment (DYNAMO) are utilized. Observations from the research vessel Revelle are used to document the ML and its modification during the time leading up to the onset phase of the October MJO. The mixed layer depth increased from ∼500 to ∼700 m during the 1–12 October suppressed period, allowing a greater proportion of boundary layer thermals to reach the lifting condensation level and hence promote cloud growth. The ML heat budget defines an equilibrium mixed layer depth that accurately diagnoses the mixed layer depth over the DYNAMO convectively suppressed period, provided that horizontal advection is included. The advection at the Revelle is significantly influenced by low-level convective outflows from the southern ITCZ. The findings also demonstrate a connection between cirrus clouds and their remote impact on ML depth and convective development through a reduction in the ML radiative cooling rate. The emergent behavior of the equilibrium mixed layer has implications for simulating the MJO with models with parameterized cloud and turbulent-scale motions.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

This article is included in the DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation Special Collection.

Corresponding author: Richard H. Johnson, Richard.H.Johnson@colostate.edu
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