Equatorial Western–Central Pacific SST Responsible for the North Pacific Oscillation–ENSO Sequence

Suqiong Hu aKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education (KLME), Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC), Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Suqiong Hu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Wenjun Zhang aKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education (KLME), Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC), Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Wenjun Zhang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Masahiro Watanabe bAtmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan

Search for other papers by Masahiro Watanabe in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Feng Jiang aKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education (KLME), Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC), Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Feng Jiang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Fei-Fei Jin cDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii

Search for other papers by Fei-Fei Jin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Han-Ching Chen aKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education (KLME), Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC), Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Han-Ching Chen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the dominant mode of interannual variability in the tropical Pacific, is well known to affect the extratropical climate via atmospheric teleconnections. Extratropical atmospheric variability may in turn influence the occurrence of ENSO events. The winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), as the secondary dominant mode of atmospheric variability over the North Pacific, has been recognized as a potential precursor for ENSO development. This study demonstrates that the preexisting winter NPO signal is primarily excited by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial western–central Pacific. During ENSO years with a preceding winter NPO signal, which accounts for approximately 60% of ENSO events observed in 1979–2021, significant SST anomalies emerge in the equatorial western–central Pacific in the preceding autumn and winter. The concurrent presence of local convection anomalies can act as a catalyst for NPO-like atmospheric circulation anomalies. In contrast, during other ENSO years, significant SST anomalies are not observed in the equatorial western–central Pacific during the preceding winter, and correspondingly, the NPO signal is absent. Ensemble simulations using an atmospheric general circulation model driven by observed SST anomalies in the tropical western–central Pacific can well reproduce the interannual variability of observed NPO. Therefore, an alternative explanation for the observed NPO–ENSO relationship is that the preceding winter NPO is a companion to ENSO development, driven by the precursory SST signal in the equatorial western–central Pacific. Our results suggest that the lagged relationship between ENSO and the NPO involves a tropical–extratropical two-way coupling rather than a purely stochastic forcing of the extratropical atmosphere on ENSO.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wenjun Zhang, zhangwj@nuist.edu.cn

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the dominant mode of interannual variability in the tropical Pacific, is well known to affect the extratropical climate via atmospheric teleconnections. Extratropical atmospheric variability may in turn influence the occurrence of ENSO events. The winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), as the secondary dominant mode of atmospheric variability over the North Pacific, has been recognized as a potential precursor for ENSO development. This study demonstrates that the preexisting winter NPO signal is primarily excited by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial western–central Pacific. During ENSO years with a preceding winter NPO signal, which accounts for approximately 60% of ENSO events observed in 1979–2021, significant SST anomalies emerge in the equatorial western–central Pacific in the preceding autumn and winter. The concurrent presence of local convection anomalies can act as a catalyst for NPO-like atmospheric circulation anomalies. In contrast, during other ENSO years, significant SST anomalies are not observed in the equatorial western–central Pacific during the preceding winter, and correspondingly, the NPO signal is absent. Ensemble simulations using an atmospheric general circulation model driven by observed SST anomalies in the tropical western–central Pacific can well reproduce the interannual variability of observed NPO. Therefore, an alternative explanation for the observed NPO–ENSO relationship is that the preceding winter NPO is a companion to ENSO development, driven by the precursory SST signal in the equatorial western–central Pacific. Our results suggest that the lagged relationship between ENSO and the NPO involves a tropical–extratropical two-way coupling rather than a purely stochastic forcing of the extratropical atmosphere on ENSO.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Wenjun Zhang, zhangwj@nuist.edu.cn

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 6.3090 MB)
Save
  • Alexander, M. A., I. Bladé, M. Newman, J. R. Lanzante, N.-C. Lau, and J. D. Scott, 2002: The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate, 15, 22052231, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2205:TABTIO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amaya, D. J., Y. Kosaka, W. Zhou, Y. Zhang, S.-P. Xie, and A. J. Miller, 2019: The North Pacific pacemaker effect on historical ENSO and its mechanisms. J. Climate, 32, 76437661, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0040.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, B. T., 2003: Tropical Pacific sea-surface temperatures and preceding sea level pressure anomalies in the subtropical North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4732, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003805.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, B. T., 2004: Investigation of a large-scale mode of ocean–atmosphere variability and its relation to tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Climate, 17, 40894098, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<4089:IOALMO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, B. T., 2007: On the joint role of subtropical atmospheric variability and equatorial subsurface heat content anomalies in initiating the onset of ENSO events. J. Climate, 20, 15931599, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4075.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, B. T., R. C. Perez, and A. Karspeck, 2013: Triggering of El Niño onset through trade wind–induced charging of the equatorial Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 12121216, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ashok, K., C.-Y. Tam, and W.-J. Lee, 2009: ENSO Modoki impact on the Southern Hemisphere storm track activity during extended austral winter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12705, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL038847.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bayr, T., D. I. V. Domeisen, and C. Wengel, 2019: The effect of the equatorial Pacific cold SST bias on simulated ENSO teleconnections to the North Pacific and California. Climate Dyn., 53, 37713789, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04746-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., 1969: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 163172, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1969)097<0163:ATFTEP>2.3.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bosc, C., and T. Delcroix, 2008: Observed equatorial Rossby waves and ENSO-related warm water volume changes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C06003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bunge, L., and A. J. Clarke, 2014: On the warm water volume and its changing relationship with ENSO. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 13721385, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-13-062.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cane, M. A., and S. E. Zebiak, 1985: A theory for El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. Science, 228, 10851087, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.228.4703.1085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, P., L. Zhang, R. Saravanan, D. J. Vimont, J. C. H. Chiang, L. Ji, H. Seidel, and M. K. Tippett, 2007: Pacific meridional mode and El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16608, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, H.-C., Y.-H. Tseng, Z.-Z. Hu, and R. Ding, 2020: Enhancing the ENSO predictability beyond the spring barrier. Sci. Rep., 10, 984, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-57853-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiang, J. C. H., and D. J. Vimont, 2004: Analogous Pacific and Atlantic meridional modes of tropical atmosphere–ocean variability. J. Climate, 17, 41434158, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4953.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, R. E., 1976: Predictability of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 249266, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1976)006<0249:POSSTA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., and Coauthors, 2012: ENSO and Pacific decadal variability in the Community Climate System Model version 4. J. Climate, 25, 26222651, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00301.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Di Lorenzo, E., K. M. Cobb, J. C. Furtado, N. Schneider, B. T. Anderson, A. Bracco, M. A. Alexander, and D. J. Vimont, 2010: Central Pacific El Niño and decadal climate change in the North Pacific Ocean. Nat. Geosci., 3, 762765, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, R., and Coauthors, 2022: Multi-year El Niño events tied to the North Pacific Oscillation. Nat. Commun., 13, 3871, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31516-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, Y., K. C. Armour, D. S. Battisti, and E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, 2022: Two-way teleconnections between the Southern Ocean and the tropical Pacific via a dynamic feedback. J. Climate, 35, 62676282, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-22-0080.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fang, S.-W., and J.-Y. Yu, 2020: A control of ENSO transition complexity by tropical Pacific mean SSTs through tropical-subtropical interaction. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL087933, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087933.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furtado, J. C., E. Di Lorenzo, B. T. Anderson, and N. Schneider, 2012: Linkages between the North Pacific Oscillation and central tropical Pacific SSTs at low frequencies. Climate Dyn., 39, 28332846, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1245-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo, Y., M. Ting, Z. Wen, and D. E. Lee, 2017: Distinct patterns of tropical Pacific SST anomaly and their impacts on North American climate. J. Climate, 30, 52215241, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0488.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hendon, H. H., E. Lim, G. Wang, O. Alves, and D. Hudson, 2009: Prospects for predicting two flavors of El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L19713, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hersbach, H., and Coauthors, 2020: The ERA5 global reanalysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 146, 19992049, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3803.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoell, A., M. Hoerling, J. Eischeid, K. Wolter, R. Dole, J. Perlwitz, T. Xu, and L. Cheng, 2016: Does El Niño intensity matter for California precipitation? Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 819825, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL067102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horel, J. D., and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 813829, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 11791196, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1179:TSLROA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, F.-F., 1997a: An equatorial ocean recharge paradigm for ENSO. Part I: Conceptual model. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 811829, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0811:AEORPF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, F.-F., 1997b: An equatorial ocean recharge paradigm for ENSO. Part II: A stripped-down coupled model. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 830847, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0830:AEORPF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumar, A., M. Chen, Y. Xue, and D. Behringer, 2015: An analysis of the temporal evolution of ENSO prediction skill in the context of the equatorial Pacific Ocean observing system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 32043213, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0035.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N.-C., 1997: Interactions between global SST anomalies and the midlatitude atmospheric circulation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2134, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0021:IBGSAA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Linkin, M. E., and S. Nigam, 2008: The North Pacific Oscillation–west Pacific teleconnection pattern: Mature-phase structure and winter impacts. J. Climate, 21, 19791997, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2048.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, 1994: Observations of the 40–50-day tropical oscillation—A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 814837, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122<0814:OOTDTO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., 1999: Genesis and evolution of the 1997–98 El Niño. Science, 283, 950954, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.283.5404.950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., 2003: Tropical Pacific Ocean heat content variations and ENSO persistence barriers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1480, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL016872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., 2012: A 21st century shift in the relationship between ENSO SST and warm water volume anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L09706, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051826.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., F. Bahr, Y. Du Penhoat, E. Firing, S. P. Hayes, P. P. Niiler, P. L. Richardson, and J. M. Toole, 1992: The response of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to westerly wind bursts during November 1989 to January 1990. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 14 28914 303, https://doi.org/10.1029/92JC01197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meinen, C. S., and M. J. McPhaden, 2000: Observations of warm water volume changes in the equatorial Pacific and their relationship to El Niño and La Niña. J. Climate, 13, 35513559, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3551:OOWWVC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, T., Y. Tachibana, M. Honda, and S. Yamane, 2006: Influence of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode on ENSO by modulating westerly wind bursts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07709, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neelin, J. D., D. S. Battisti, A. C. Hirst, F.-F. Jin, Y. Wakata, T. Yamagata, and S. E. Zebiak, 1998: ENSO theory. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14 26114 290, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC03424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, J.-H., S.-I. An, J.-S. Kug, Y.-M. Yang, T. Li, and H.-S. Jo, 2021: Mid-latitude leading double-dip La Niña. Int. J. Climatol., 41, E1353E1370, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, J.-Y., S.-W. Yeh, J.-S. Kug, and J. Yoon, 2013: Favorable connections between seasonal footprinting mechanism and El Niño. Climate Dyn., 40, 11691181, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1477-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parnell, A. C., 2013: Climate time series analysis: Classical statistical and bootstrap methods. J. Time Ser. Anal., 34, 281281, https://doi.org/10.1111/jtsa.12002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pegion, K., C. M. Selman, S. Larson, J. C. Furtado, and E. J. Becker, 2020: The impact of the extratropics on ENSO diversity and predictability. Climate Dyn., 54, 44694484, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05232-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Philander, S. G. H., 1985: El Niño and La Niña. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 26522662, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<2652:ENALN>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4407, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, J. C., 1981: The North Pacific Oscillation. J. Climatol., 1, 3957, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3370010106.

  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 16061626, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1606:GARSPP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuecker, M. F., 2018: Revisiting the Pacific Meridional Mode. Sci. Rep., 8, 3216, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21537-0.

  • Terray, P., 2011: Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical forcing: A new paradigm for El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Climate Dyn., 36, 21712199, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0825-z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team, 2004: The new GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J. Climate, 17, 46414673, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-3223.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trascasa-Castro, P., A. C. Maycock, Y. Ruprich-Robert, M. Turco, and P. W. Staten, 2023: Atlantic multidecadal variability modulates the climate impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation in Australia. Environ. Res. Lett., 18, 084029, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ace920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., G. W. Branstator, D. Karoly, A. Kumar, N.-C. Lau, and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14 29114 324, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC01444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tseng, Y., J.-H. Huang, and H.-C. Chen, 2022: Improving the predictability of two types of ENSO by the characteristics of extratropical precursors. Geophys. Res. Lett., 49, e2021GL097190, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL097190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Loon, H., and R. A. Madden, 1981: The Southern Oscillation. Part I: Global associations with pressure and temperature in northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 11501162, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<1150:TSOPIG>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vimont, D. J., D. S. Battisti, and A. C. Hirst, 2001: Footprinting: A seasonal connection between the tropics and mid-latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 39233926, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vimont, D. J., D. S. Battisti, and A. C. Hirst, 2003a: The seasonal footprinting mechanism in the CSIRO general circulation models. J. Climate, 16, 26532667, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2653:TSFMIT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vimont, D. J., J. M. Wallace, and D. S. Battisti, 2003b: The seasonal footprinting mechanism in the Pacific: Implications for ENSO. J. Climate, 16, 26682675, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<2668:TSFMIT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vimont, D. J., M. A. Alexander, and M. Newman, 2014: Optimal growth of central and East Pacific ENSO events. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 40274034, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL059997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, G. T., and E. W. Bliss, 1932: World weather V. Mem. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 4, 5384.

  • Wang, W., M. Chen, and A. Kumar, 2010: An assessment of the CFS real-time seasonal forecasts. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 950969, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222345.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilks, D. S., 2006: On “field significance” and the false discovery rate. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 11811189, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2404.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilks, D. S., 2016: “The stippling shows statistically significant grid points”: How research results are routinely overstated and overinterpreted, and what to do about it. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97, 22632273, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00267.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, X., Y. M. Okumura, and P. N. DiNezio, 2019: What controls the duration of El Niño and La Niña events? J. Climate, 32, 59415965, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0681.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1996: Analyses of global monthly precipitation using gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model predictions. J. Climate, 9, 840858, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<0840:AOGMPU>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You, Y., and J. C. Furtado, 2017: The role of South Pacific atmospheric variability in the development of different types of ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 74387446, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • You, Y., and J. C. Furtado, 2018: The South Pacific meridional mode and its role in tropical Pacific climate variability. J. Climate, 31, 10 14110 163, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0860.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., and S. T. Kim, 2011: Relationships between extratropical sea level pressure variations and the central Pacific and eastern Pacific types of ENSO. J. Climate, 24, 708720, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3688.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H., A. Clement, and P. Di Nezio, 2014: The South Pacific meridional mode: A mechanism for ENSO-like variability. J. Climate, 27, 769783, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00082.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, W., S. Li, F.-F. Jin, R. Xie, C. Liu, M. F. Stuecker, and A. Xue, 2019: ENSO regime changes responsible for decadal phase relationship variations between ENSO sea surface temperature and warm water volume. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 75467553, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL082943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, J., M.-K. Sung, J.-H. Park, J.-J. Luo, and J.-S. Kug, 2023a: Part I observational study on a new mechanism for North Pacific Oscillation influencing the tropics. npj Climate Atmos. Sci., 6, 15, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-023-00336-z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, J., M.-K. Sung, J.-H. Park, J.-J. Luo, and J.-S. Kug, 2023b: Part II model support on a new mechanism for North Pacific Oscillation influence on ENSO. npj Climate Atmos. Sci., 6, 16, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-023-00337-y.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, S., F.-F. Jin, and M. F. Stuecker, 2021: Understanding lead times of warm water volumes to ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 48, e2021GL094366, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zuo, H., M. A. Balmaseda, S. Tietsche, K. Mogensen, and M. Mayer, 2019: The ECMWF operational ensemble reanalysis–analysis system for ocean and sea ice: A description of the system and assessment. Ocean Sci., 15, 779808, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-15-779-2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 446 446 125
Full Text Views 206 206 75
PDF Downloads 259 259 94