Formation Mechanisms of the Decadal Indian Ocean Dipole Driven by Remote Forcing from the Tropical Pacific

Mingmei Xie aSchool of Geography and Remote Sensing, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China

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Bo Wu bState Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Jia-Zhen Wang cFrontier Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, and Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China

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Chunzai Wang dState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
eGlobal Ocean and Climate Research Center, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

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Xiubao Sun dState Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
eGlobal Ocean and Climate Research Center, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

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Abstract

On decadal time scales, a zonal SST dipole dominates the tropical Indian Ocean in boreal late summer and fall, called the decadal Indian Ocean dipole (D-IOD). The D-IOD has a spatial pattern different from the traditional interannual IOD, with its eastern pole located off Java, rather than the whole Sumatra–Java coasts as the latter. Here, we show that the D-IOD is generated by both the remote tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) forcing and the decadal modulation of interannual IODs, but with its distinctive spatial pattern and seasonality mainly shaped by the former. In August–September (AS), due to the seasonal strengthening of trade winds, the descending branch of TPDV-induced Walker circulation moves westward into the eastern Indian Ocean relative to June–July, which stimulates equatorial easterly anomalies and oceanic upwelling Kelvin waves, causing subsurface cooling off Java. The subsurface cooling just occurs within the time window of climatological coastal upwelling so that subsurface cold anomalies are brought into the surface by mean upwelling and further transported offshore by mean flows, forming the D-IOD eastern pole. The subsurface cooling is only generated near Java but not Sumatra, because the former is closer to the exit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Weakened ITF during positive TPDV inhibits the growth of subsurface warming off Java prior to the establishment of AS equatorial easterly anomalies, whereas this ITF effect is not observed off Sumatra. Moreover, warming of the D-IOD western pole might be associated with off-equatorial Rossby waves induced by TPDV-related wind stress curls.

Significance Statement

The decadal Indian Ocean dipole (D-IOD) is one of the leading decadal modes of the tropical Indian Ocean SST variations. Its formation mechanisms, especially those related to its spatiotemporal characteristics, are not well understood. Based on observations and reanalysis, we show that the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) mainly accounts for the distinctive spatial pattern and seasonality of the D-IOD via the seasonal migration of the anomalous Walker circulation and ensuing oceanic subsurface dynamics. Our results highlight that the TPDV is an important source of D-IOD’s predictability, and it might be beneficial for operational decadal predictions for the tropical Indian Ocean.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Bo Wu, wubo@mail.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

On decadal time scales, a zonal SST dipole dominates the tropical Indian Ocean in boreal late summer and fall, called the decadal Indian Ocean dipole (D-IOD). The D-IOD has a spatial pattern different from the traditional interannual IOD, with its eastern pole located off Java, rather than the whole Sumatra–Java coasts as the latter. Here, we show that the D-IOD is generated by both the remote tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) forcing and the decadal modulation of interannual IODs, but with its distinctive spatial pattern and seasonality mainly shaped by the former. In August–September (AS), due to the seasonal strengthening of trade winds, the descending branch of TPDV-induced Walker circulation moves westward into the eastern Indian Ocean relative to June–July, which stimulates equatorial easterly anomalies and oceanic upwelling Kelvin waves, causing subsurface cooling off Java. The subsurface cooling just occurs within the time window of climatological coastal upwelling so that subsurface cold anomalies are brought into the surface by mean upwelling and further transported offshore by mean flows, forming the D-IOD eastern pole. The subsurface cooling is only generated near Java but not Sumatra, because the former is closer to the exit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Weakened ITF during positive TPDV inhibits the growth of subsurface warming off Java prior to the establishment of AS equatorial easterly anomalies, whereas this ITF effect is not observed off Sumatra. Moreover, warming of the D-IOD western pole might be associated with off-equatorial Rossby waves induced by TPDV-related wind stress curls.

Significance Statement

The decadal Indian Ocean dipole (D-IOD) is one of the leading decadal modes of the tropical Indian Ocean SST variations. Its formation mechanisms, especially those related to its spatiotemporal characteristics, are not well understood. Based on observations and reanalysis, we show that the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) mainly accounts for the distinctive spatial pattern and seasonality of the D-IOD via the seasonal migration of the anomalous Walker circulation and ensuing oceanic subsurface dynamics. Our results highlight that the TPDV is an important source of D-IOD’s predictability, and it might be beneficial for operational decadal predictions for the tropical Indian Ocean.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Bo Wu, wubo@mail.iap.ac.cn

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