Comparison between Developing and Nondeveloping Disturbances for Tropical Cyclogenesis in Different Large-Scale Flow Patterns over the Western North Pacific

Ziqing Wang aKey Laboratory of Cloud-Precipitation Physics and Severe Storms, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
bUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Guanghua Chen aKey Laboratory of Cloud-Precipitation Physics and Severe Storms, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Abstract

This study classifies 407 developing disturbances (DEV) and 2309 nondeveloping disturbances (NONDEV) over the western North Pacific into five large-scale circulation patterns, namely the pre-existing cyclone (PC), easterly wave (EW), zonal wind convergence (CON), zonal wind shear line (SL), and mixed zonal wind convergence and shear line (CON-SL) patterns. The SL pattern has the highest TC yield percentage, followed by the CON-SL, while the EW is the least favorable pattern. The composite analysis shows that upper-level divergence, midlevel relative humidity, and surface heat flux (SHF) growth are crucial to the disturbance development in all the five patterns. Besides, large lower-level barotropic kinetic energy conversion and a well-developed primary circulation are good indicators for disturbance development in the PC, EW, and CON rather than in the SL and CON-SL patterns. Furthermore, for the PC, EW and CON patterns, the DEV features strong and rapidly growing SHF and mesoscale convective systems (MCS) closer to the disturbance center, which allows deep-layer warming and moistening, and drives a deep secondary circulation. Interestingly, due to an environment with high lower-level vorticity, the SL and CON-SL patterns typically foster a relatively mature primary circulation with strong SHF and MCS concentrated close to the center, especially for the NONDEV at the pre-genesis stage. However, a drier mid-to-upper-level environment for the NONDEV inhibits deep convection, which may explain its shallow secondary circulation and therefore poor potential to develop further.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Guanghua Chen, cgh@mail.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

This study classifies 407 developing disturbances (DEV) and 2309 nondeveloping disturbances (NONDEV) over the western North Pacific into five large-scale circulation patterns, namely the pre-existing cyclone (PC), easterly wave (EW), zonal wind convergence (CON), zonal wind shear line (SL), and mixed zonal wind convergence and shear line (CON-SL) patterns. The SL pattern has the highest TC yield percentage, followed by the CON-SL, while the EW is the least favorable pattern. The composite analysis shows that upper-level divergence, midlevel relative humidity, and surface heat flux (SHF) growth are crucial to the disturbance development in all the five patterns. Besides, large lower-level barotropic kinetic energy conversion and a well-developed primary circulation are good indicators for disturbance development in the PC, EW, and CON rather than in the SL and CON-SL patterns. Furthermore, for the PC, EW and CON patterns, the DEV features strong and rapidly growing SHF and mesoscale convective systems (MCS) closer to the disturbance center, which allows deep-layer warming and moistening, and drives a deep secondary circulation. Interestingly, due to an environment with high lower-level vorticity, the SL and CON-SL patterns typically foster a relatively mature primary circulation with strong SHF and MCS concentrated close to the center, especially for the NONDEV at the pre-genesis stage. However, a drier mid-to-upper-level environment for the NONDEV inhibits deep convection, which may explain its shallow secondary circulation and therefore poor potential to develop further.

© 2023 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Guanghua Chen, cgh@mail.iap.ac.cn
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