Impact of Extratropical Circulation in East Asia on Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Frequency and Intensity

Rui Jin aShanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai, China
bAsia-Pacific Typhoon Collaborative Research Center, Shanghai, China
cKey Laboratory of Tropical Cyclone Numerical Weather Prediction, China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai, China

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Hui Yu aShanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai, China
cKey Laboratory of Tropical Cyclone Numerical Weather Prediction, China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai, China

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Zhiwei Wu dDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Atmospheric Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Johnny C. L. Chan aShanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai, China
bAsia-Pacific Typhoon Collaborative Research Center, Shanghai, China
eSchool of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

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Ming Ying aShanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration, Shanghai, China

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Peng Zhang dDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Atmospheric Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Abstract

This study examines the East Asia and western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon circulation patterns for strong and weak WNP tropical cyclone (TC) numbers in summer. It suggested that years with more intense TCs are coupled with the tropical monsoon circulations, including the northward cross-equatorial airflow and the extending tropical monsoon trough toward the central-eastern WNP. However, a higher frequency of weak TCs can be largely attributed to the mutual interactions among the tropical monsoon trough west of 140°E, the westward South Asia high, and the high pressure anomaly in Northeast Asia (NEA). Then the potential influence of the NEA extratropical system is focused on. The resultant local negative potential vorticity (PV) anomaly is carried southeastward by the prevailing flow. It stimulates a descending flow around 30°N, which favors the westward retreat of the South Asian high and the decreased zonal vertical wind shear around 20°N. The associated lower-level outflow converges in the tropical WNP and reinforces the ascending motion around 10°–20°N. Meanwhile, the warm air column in NEA also contributes to anomalous easterlies in a band around 30°N, intensifying the lower-level cyclonic vorticity in the northwestern WNP. Consequently, the ascending motion, cyclonic vorticity, and the weakened zonal vertical wind shear in northwestern WNP promote the WTC formation. A set of physically based empirical models is developed using various physically based predictors to reconstruct the number of intense and weak TCs. Cross-validated hindcasts suggest that the NEA extratropical circulation can serve as an additional source of predictability for the weak TC variability.

Significance Statement

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are a highly destructive type of natural disaster that have garnered widespread attention. By comparison with intense TCs (ITCs), weak TCs (WTCs) are much more numerous and often form closer to the coastal regions of East Asia, whose mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, we suggest that more ITCs are controlled by tropical monsoon circulations, while the WTC variability is closely coupled with both tropical and extratropical monsoon systems. In addition to the tropical monsoon trough west of 140°E and the westward South Asian high, the Northeast Asian circulation can regulate the WTC number by changing the lower-level vorticity, vertical motion, and vertical wind shear in the WTC genesis-prone region, which can be applied to improve the seasonal prediction skill of WTCs.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Hui Yu, yuh@typhoon.org.cn

Abstract

This study examines the East Asia and western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon circulation patterns for strong and weak WNP tropical cyclone (TC) numbers in summer. It suggested that years with more intense TCs are coupled with the tropical monsoon circulations, including the northward cross-equatorial airflow and the extending tropical monsoon trough toward the central-eastern WNP. However, a higher frequency of weak TCs can be largely attributed to the mutual interactions among the tropical monsoon trough west of 140°E, the westward South Asia high, and the high pressure anomaly in Northeast Asia (NEA). Then the potential influence of the NEA extratropical system is focused on. The resultant local negative potential vorticity (PV) anomaly is carried southeastward by the prevailing flow. It stimulates a descending flow around 30°N, which favors the westward retreat of the South Asian high and the decreased zonal vertical wind shear around 20°N. The associated lower-level outflow converges in the tropical WNP and reinforces the ascending motion around 10°–20°N. Meanwhile, the warm air column in NEA also contributes to anomalous easterlies in a band around 30°N, intensifying the lower-level cyclonic vorticity in the northwestern WNP. Consequently, the ascending motion, cyclonic vorticity, and the weakened zonal vertical wind shear in northwestern WNP promote the WTC formation. A set of physically based empirical models is developed using various physically based predictors to reconstruct the number of intense and weak TCs. Cross-validated hindcasts suggest that the NEA extratropical circulation can serve as an additional source of predictability for the weak TC variability.

Significance Statement

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are a highly destructive type of natural disaster that have garnered widespread attention. By comparison with intense TCs (ITCs), weak TCs (WTCs) are much more numerous and often form closer to the coastal regions of East Asia, whose mechanism has not been fully understood. In this study, we suggest that more ITCs are controlled by tropical monsoon circulations, while the WTC variability is closely coupled with both tropical and extratropical monsoon systems. In addition to the tropical monsoon trough west of 140°E and the westward South Asian high, the Northeast Asian circulation can regulate the WTC number by changing the lower-level vorticity, vertical motion, and vertical wind shear in the WTC genesis-prone region, which can be applied to improve the seasonal prediction skill of WTCs.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Hui Yu, yuh@typhoon.org.cn
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