Anomalous Characteristics of Water Vapor Budget on the Tibetan Plateau under the Influence of Tropical Cyclones over the Bay of Bengal during Early Summer

Beiyao Liu aState Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
bUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Ying Li aState Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China

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Zhehong Wu cAnshun Meteorological Bureau, Anshun, China

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Jialu Lin aState Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China

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Abstract

Early summer is a peak time for tropical cyclone (TC) activities over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and a period of South Asian monsoon onset, and the TCs during this time have a significant impact on the water vapor transport associated with monsoons. This study investigates the anomalous characteristics of the dynamic–thermal atmospheric circulation structure and water vapor budget over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) under the influence of BoB TCs generated in May from 1979 to 2020 with JTWC best track data and ERA5 data. Results reveal that a significant southerly water vapor channel forms from the BoB to the southeastern TP with a water vapor convergence near the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. A part of the water vapor is transported directly to the TP by deep southerly jet, while the other part is lifted by TCs and then climbs upward to the TP by two uplift processes occurring on the southern slope of the TP and over the TP respectively, which makes the whole troposphere over the southeastern TP warmer and wetter. It is found that anomalous southeasterly airflow in the northeast of TC circulation turns to anomalous southwesterly airflow forming an abnormal anticyclonic circulation over the southern TP in the middle and upper troposphere due to the diabatic heating effect. In this process, the TP acts as an anomalous water vapor sink with remarkable water vapor inflow through its southern boundary, with the main water vapor outflow through the eastern boundary, but a weak easterly water vapor backflow to the eastern TP in the lower troposphere.

Significance Statement

This study attempts to investigate the anomalous features of the water vapor budget over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) under the influence of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) tropical cyclones (TCs) during early summer. Results show that a significant southerly water vapor channel forms from the BoB to the southeastern TP with a water vapor convergence near the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. The TP acts as an anomalous water vapor sink with more and higher water vapor inflows through the southern boundary of the TP. A positive temperature and humidity anomaly can be found over the southeastern TP extending upward into the middle and upper troposphere. The results are helpful to understand how the BoB TCs affect the weather process over the TP.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Ying Li, yli@cma.gov.cn

Abstract

Early summer is a peak time for tropical cyclone (TC) activities over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and a period of South Asian monsoon onset, and the TCs during this time have a significant impact on the water vapor transport associated with monsoons. This study investigates the anomalous characteristics of the dynamic–thermal atmospheric circulation structure and water vapor budget over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) under the influence of BoB TCs generated in May from 1979 to 2020 with JTWC best track data and ERA5 data. Results reveal that a significant southerly water vapor channel forms from the BoB to the southeastern TP with a water vapor convergence near the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. A part of the water vapor is transported directly to the TP by deep southerly jet, while the other part is lifted by TCs and then climbs upward to the TP by two uplift processes occurring on the southern slope of the TP and over the TP respectively, which makes the whole troposphere over the southeastern TP warmer and wetter. It is found that anomalous southeasterly airflow in the northeast of TC circulation turns to anomalous southwesterly airflow forming an abnormal anticyclonic circulation over the southern TP in the middle and upper troposphere due to the diabatic heating effect. In this process, the TP acts as an anomalous water vapor sink with remarkable water vapor inflow through its southern boundary, with the main water vapor outflow through the eastern boundary, but a weak easterly water vapor backflow to the eastern TP in the lower troposphere.

Significance Statement

This study attempts to investigate the anomalous features of the water vapor budget over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) under the influence of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) tropical cyclones (TCs) during early summer. Results show that a significant southerly water vapor channel forms from the BoB to the southeastern TP with a water vapor convergence near the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. The TP acts as an anomalous water vapor sink with more and higher water vapor inflows through the southern boundary of the TP. A positive temperature and humidity anomaly can be found over the southeastern TP extending upward into the middle and upper troposphere. The results are helpful to understand how the BoB TCs affect the weather process over the TP.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This published article is licensed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Ying Li, yli@cma.gov.cn
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