Temporal Duration of the East Asian Summer Monsoon Substantially Affects Surface Energy Exchange over the Summer Monsoon Transition Zone of China

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  • 1 Key Laboratory of Meteorological and Ecological Environment of Hebei Province, and Hebei Climate Center, Shijiazhuang, China
  • 2 Gansu Key Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Reducing Disaster,Key Open Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Disaster Reduction of CMA, and Institute of Arid Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Lanzhou, China
  • 3 Reading Academy, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, China
  • 4 College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui, China
  • 5 Hebei Climate Center, Shijiazhuang, China
  • 6 International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Hebei Province: Hebei International Joint Research Center for Remote Sensing of Agricultural Drought Monitoring, and School of Land Science and Space Planning, Hebei GEO University, Shijiazhuang, China
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Abstract

Investigating the response of land surface energy exchange to key climatic signals such as the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is essential for understanding the intensive interactions in the Earth system. This study focuses on the summer monsoon transition zone (SMTZ) in China, which has a climate rather sensitive to the EASM activity, and examined the response of land surface energy exchange over the SMTZ to summer monsoon activity. A flux evaluation of five reanalysis/modeling data sets indicates that JRA-55(the Japane 55-year Reanalysis) reasonably represents interannual variations of surface heat fluxes over the SMTZ. The EASM activity is accurately identified in the SMTZ by introducing a monsoon temporal duration index (MTDI), which presents climate variations of summer rainfall and EASM activity better than commonly used summer monsoon indexes. Based on MTDI and long-term flux data sets, it was found that the interannual fluctuation of the EASM intensively controls surface energy partitioning and turbulent heat exchange but has a weak impact on radiative processes over the SMTZ. Furthermore, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes significantly responded to the influential period of the summer monsoon, exhibiting approximately quadratic/logarithmic relationships with the MTDI. More prominent interannual variabilities of turbulent heat fluxes were observed in weak summer monsoon years, during which an active interaction between surface energy exchange and a warming and drying climate occurred. An ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) analysis confirms that EASM activity dominates the quasi-biennial and multidecadal variations of turbulent heat fluxes over the SMTZ, which may be achieved by the transport of tropical quasi-biennial and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) signals to the mid-latitudes of East Asia. The expected intensification of summer monsoon activity in the future may induce acceleration of energy and hydrological cycle and exert a substantial impact on the availability of water and the ecosystem stability over the SMTZ.

Corresponding author: Hongyu Li, aridlhy@qq.com; Ping Yue, jqyueping@126.com

Abstract

Investigating the response of land surface energy exchange to key climatic signals such as the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is essential for understanding the intensive interactions in the Earth system. This study focuses on the summer monsoon transition zone (SMTZ) in China, which has a climate rather sensitive to the EASM activity, and examined the response of land surface energy exchange over the SMTZ to summer monsoon activity. A flux evaluation of five reanalysis/modeling data sets indicates that JRA-55(the Japane 55-year Reanalysis) reasonably represents interannual variations of surface heat fluxes over the SMTZ. The EASM activity is accurately identified in the SMTZ by introducing a monsoon temporal duration index (MTDI), which presents climate variations of summer rainfall and EASM activity better than commonly used summer monsoon indexes. Based on MTDI and long-term flux data sets, it was found that the interannual fluctuation of the EASM intensively controls surface energy partitioning and turbulent heat exchange but has a weak impact on radiative processes over the SMTZ. Furthermore, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes significantly responded to the influential period of the summer monsoon, exhibiting approximately quadratic/logarithmic relationships with the MTDI. More prominent interannual variabilities of turbulent heat fluxes were observed in weak summer monsoon years, during which an active interaction between surface energy exchange and a warming and drying climate occurred. An ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) analysis confirms that EASM activity dominates the quasi-biennial and multidecadal variations of turbulent heat fluxes over the SMTZ, which may be achieved by the transport of tropical quasi-biennial and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) signals to the mid-latitudes of East Asia. The expected intensification of summer monsoon activity in the future may induce acceleration of energy and hydrological cycle and exert a substantial impact on the availability of water and the ecosystem stability over the SMTZ.

Corresponding author: Hongyu Li, aridlhy@qq.com; Ping Yue, jqyueping@126.com
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