Soil Surface Energy and Water Budgets during a Monsoon Season in Korea

Claudio Cassardo Department of General Physics “Amedeo Avogadro,” University of Turin, Turin, Italy

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Seon Ki Park Severe Storm Research Center, and Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea

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Bindu Malla Thakuri Severe Storm Research Center, and Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea

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Daniela Priolo Department of General Physics “Amedeo Avogadro,” University of Turin, Turin, Italy

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Ying Zhang Department of General Physics “Amedeo Avogadro,” University of Turin, Turin, Italy

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Abstract

In this study, attention has been focused on the climatology of some variables linked to the turbulent exchanges of heat and water vapor in the surface layer during a summer monsoon in Korea. In particular, the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, the hydrologic budget, and the soil temperatures and moistures have been analyzed. At large scale, because the measurements of those data are not only fragmentary and exiguously available but also infeasible for the execution of climatologic analyses, the outputs of a land surface scheme have been used as surrogate of observations to analyze surface layer processes [this idea is based on the methodology Climatology of Parameters at the Surface (CLIPS)] in the Korean monsoonal climate. Analyses have been made for the summer of 2005. As a land surface scheme, the land surface process model (LSPM) developed at the University of Torino, Italy, has been employed, along with the data collected from 635 Korean meteorological stations. The LSPM predictions showed good agreement with selected observations of soil temperature. Major results show that, during the rainfall season, soil moisture in the first tenths of centimeters frequently exceeds the field capacity, whereas most of the rainfall is “lost” as surface runoff. Evapotranspiration is the dominant component of the energy budget, sometimes even exceeding net radiation, especially during the short periods between the precipitation events; in these periods, daily mean soil temperatures are about 28°C or even more. The Gyeonggi-do region, the metropolitan area surrounding Seoul, shows some particularities when compared with the neighboring regions: solar radiation and precipitations are lower, causing high values of sensible heat flux and soil temperatures, and lower values of latent heat flux and soil moistures.

Corresponding author address: Claudio Cassardo, Department of General Physics “Amedeo Avogadro,” University of Turin, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Turin, Italy. Email: cassardo@ph.unito.it

Abstract

In this study, attention has been focused on the climatology of some variables linked to the turbulent exchanges of heat and water vapor in the surface layer during a summer monsoon in Korea. In particular, the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, the hydrologic budget, and the soil temperatures and moistures have been analyzed. At large scale, because the measurements of those data are not only fragmentary and exiguously available but also infeasible for the execution of climatologic analyses, the outputs of a land surface scheme have been used as surrogate of observations to analyze surface layer processes [this idea is based on the methodology Climatology of Parameters at the Surface (CLIPS)] in the Korean monsoonal climate. Analyses have been made for the summer of 2005. As a land surface scheme, the land surface process model (LSPM) developed at the University of Torino, Italy, has been employed, along with the data collected from 635 Korean meteorological stations. The LSPM predictions showed good agreement with selected observations of soil temperature. Major results show that, during the rainfall season, soil moisture in the first tenths of centimeters frequently exceeds the field capacity, whereas most of the rainfall is “lost” as surface runoff. Evapotranspiration is the dominant component of the energy budget, sometimes even exceeding net radiation, especially during the short periods between the precipitation events; in these periods, daily mean soil temperatures are about 28°C or even more. The Gyeonggi-do region, the metropolitan area surrounding Seoul, shows some particularities when compared with the neighboring regions: solar radiation and precipitations are lower, causing high values of sensible heat flux and soil temperatures, and lower values of latent heat flux and soil moistures.

Corresponding author address: Claudio Cassardo, Department of General Physics “Amedeo Avogadro,” University of Turin, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Turin, Italy. Email: cassardo@ph.unito.it

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