• Asanuma, J., , Dias N. L. , , Kustas W. P. , , and Brutsaert W. H. , 2000: Observations of neutral profiles of wind speed and specific humidity above a gently rolling landsurface. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 78 , 719730.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldauf, M., , and Fiedler F. , 2003: A parameterisation of the effective roughness length over inhomogeneous, flat terrain. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 106 , 189216.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldocchi, D., and Coauthors, 2001: FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 24152434.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Britter, R. E., , and Hanna S. R. , 2003: Flow and dispersion in urban areas. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 35 , 469496.

  • Brutsaert, W. H., 1982: Evaporation into the Atmosphere. D. Reidel, 229 pp.

  • Brutsaert, W. H., 1992: Stability correction functions for the mean wind speed and temperature in the unstable surface layer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19 , 469472.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brutsaert, W. H., , and Sugita M. , 1990: The extent of the unstable Monin-Obukhov layer for temperature and humidity above complex hilly grassland. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 51 , 383400.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brutsaert, W. H., , and Parlange M. B. , 1992: The unstable surface layer above forest: Regional evaporation and heat flux. Water Resour. Res., 28 , 31293134.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Businger, J. A., , Wyngaard J. C. , , Izumi Y. , , and Bradley E. F. , 1971: Flux-profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 181189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CTCI Corporation, 2007: Air pollution inventory management & air degradation estimation project (II) (in Chinese). Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Rep. EPA-95-FA11-03-D067, 641 pp. [Available online at http://epq.epa.gov.tw/project/projectcp.aspx?proj_id=IFAQLSTRNP].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., , Gill D. , , Manning K. , , Wang W. , , and Bruyere C. , 2005: PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Modeling System tutorial class notes and user’s guide (MM5 Modeling System version 3). National Center for Atmospheric Research Rep., 402 pp. [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/tutorial-v3-notes.html].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ENVIRON, 2006: CAMx v4.30 user’s guide. ENVIRON International Corporation Rep., 251 pp.

  • Fritschen, L. J., , Qian P. , , Kanemasu E. T. , , Nie D. , , Smith E. A. , , Stewart J. B. , , Verma S. B. , , and Wesely M. L. , 1992: Comparisons of surface flux measurement systems used in FIFE 1989. J. Geophys. Res., 97 , 1869718713.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gao, Z., , Bian L. , , and Zhou X. , 2003: Measurements of turbulent transfer in the near-surface layer over a rice paddy in China. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 4387. doi:10.1029/2002JD002779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garratt, J. R., 1994: The Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Cambridge University Press, 316 pp.

  • Goode, K., , and Belcher S. E. , 1999: On the parameterisation of the effective roughness length for momentum transfer over heterogeneous terrain. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 93 , 133154.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grell, G., , Dudhia J. , , and Stauffer D. , 1995: A description of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398 STR, 122 pp. [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/documents/mm5-desc-doc.html].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griebel, M., , Dorneifer T. , , and Neunhoeffer T. , 1998: Numerical Simulation in Fluid Dynamics: A Practical Introduction. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 217 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grimmond, C. S. B., , and Oke T. R. , 1991: An evapotranspiration interception model for urban areas. Water Resour. Res., 27 , 17391755.

  • Guo, Y., , and Schuepp P. H. , 1994: An analysis of the effect of local heat advection on evaporation over wet and dry surface strips. J. Climate, 7 , 641652.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagemann, S., 2002: An improved land surface parameter dataset for global and regional climate models. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Rep. 336, 28 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harazono, Y., , Kim J. , , Miyata A. , , Choi T. , , Yun J-I. , , and Kim J-W. , 1998: Measurement of energy budget components during the International Rice Experiment (IREX) in Japan. Hydrol. Processes, 12 , 20812092.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hasager, C. B., , Nielsen N. W. , , Jensen N. O. , , Boegh E. , , Christensen J. H. , , Dellwik E. , , and Soegaard H. , 2003: Effective roughness calculated from satellite-derived land cover maps and hedge-information used in a weather forecasting model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 109 , 227254.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, J., , Kim J. , , Miyata A. , , and Harazono Y. , 2002: Basic characteristics of canopy turbulence in a homogeneous rice paddy. J. Geophys. Res., 107 , 4623. doi:10.1029/2002JD002223.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, J-S., 2003: Evaluation of the high-resolution model forecasts over the Taiwan area during GIMEX. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 836846.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horst, T. W., 1999: The footprint for estimation of atmosphere-surface exchange fluxes by profile techniques. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 90 , 171188.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsieh, C. I., , Katul G. , , and Chi T. W. , 2000: An approximate analytical model for footprint estimation of scalar fluxes in thermally stratified atmospheric flows. Adv. Water Resour., 23 , 765772.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobs, J. M., , and Brutsaert W. H. , 1998: Momentum roughness and view-angle dependent heat roughness at a Southern Great Plains test-site. J. Hydrol., 211 , 6168.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kitchen, M., , Leighton J. R. , , and Caughey S. J. , 1983: Three case studies of shallow convection using a tethered balloon. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 27 , 281308.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kondo, J., , and Yamazawa H. , 1986: Aerodynamic roughness over an inhomogeneous ground surface. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 35 , 331348.

  • Kotani, A., , and Sugita M. , 2005: Seasonal variation of surface fluxes and scalar roughness of suburban land covers. Agric. For. Meteor., 132 , 121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kustas, W. P., , Prueger J. H. , , MacPherson J. I. , , Wolde M. , , and Li F. , 2005: Effects of land use and meteorological conditions on local and regional momentum transport and roughness for midwestern cropping systems. J. Hydrometeor., 6 , 825839.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martano, P., 2000: Estimation of surface roughness length and displacement height from single-level sonic anemometer data. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 708715.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, P. J., 1988: The formation of areally averaged roughness lengths. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 114 , 399420.

  • Massman, W. J., 2000: A simple method for estimating frequency response corrections for eddy covariance systems. Agric. For. Meteor., 104 , 185198.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMillen, R. T., 1988: An eddy correlation technique with extended applicability to non-simple terrain. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 43 , 231245.

  • Meek, D. E., , Prueger J. H. , , Kustas W. P. , , and Hatfield J. L. , 2005: Determining meaningful differences for SMACEX eddy covariance measurements. J. Hydrometeor., 6 , 805811.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyers, T. P., , and Hollinger S. E. , 2004: An assessment of storage terms in the surface energy balance of maize and soybean. Agric. For. Meteor., 125 , 105115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mikami, M., , Toya T. , , and Yasuda N. , 1996: An analytical method for the determination of the roughness parameters over complex regions. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 79 , 2333.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milly, P. C. D., , and Shmakin A. B. , 2002: Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part II: Land-characteristic contributions to spatial variability. J. Hydrometeor., 3 , 301310.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panin, G. N., , Tetzlaff G. , , and Raabe A. , 1998: Inhomogeneity of the land surface and problems in the parametrization of surface fluxes in natural conditions. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 60 , 163178.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parlange, M. B., , and Brutsaert W. , 1990: Are radiosonde time scales appropriate to characterize boundary layer wind profiles? J. Appl. Meteor., 29 , 249255.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parlange, M. B., , and Brutsaert W. , 1993: Regional shear stress of broken forest from radiosonde wind profiles in the unstable surface layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 64 , 355368.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parlange, M. B., , and Katul G. G. , 1995: Watershed scale shear stress from tethersonde wins profile measurement under neutral and unstable atmospheric stability. Water Resour. Res., 31 , 961968.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prueger, J. H., , Kustas W. P. , , Hipps L. E. , , and Hatfield J. L. , 2004: Aerodynamic parameters and sensible heat flux estimates for a semi-arid ecosystem. J. Arid Environ., 57 , 87100.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prueger, J. H., and Coauthors, 2005: Tower and aircraft eddy covariance measurements of water vapor, energy, and carbon dioxide fluxes during SMACEX. J. Hydrometeor., 6 , 954960.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prueger, J. H., , Eichinger W. E. , , Hipps L. E. , , Hatfield J. L. , , and Cooper D. I. , 2008: Air-flow distortion and turbulence statistics near an animal facility. Atmos. Environ., 42 , 33013314.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotach, M. W., and Coauthors, 2004: The turbulence structure and exchange processes in an alpine valley: The Riviera project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 13671385.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scire, J. S., , Robe F. R. , , Fernau M. E. , , and Yamartino R. J. , 2000: A user’s guide for the CALMET Meteorological Model (version 5). Earth Tech Rep., 332 pp. [Available online at http://www.src.com/calpuff/calpuff1.htm].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sugita, M., , Hiyama T. , , and Kayane I. , 1997: How regional are the regional fluxes obtained from lower atmospheric boundary layer data? Water Resour. Res., 33 , 14371445.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, P. A., 1987: Comments and further analysis on effective roughness length for use in numerical three-dimensional models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 39 , 403418.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsai, J-L., , and Tsuang B-J. , 2005: Aerodynamic roughness over an urban area and over two farmlands in a populated area as determined by wind profiles and surface energy flux measurements. Agric. For. Meteor., 132 , 154170.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsai, J-L., , Tsuang B-J. , , Lu P-S. , , Yao M-H. , , and Shen Y. , 2007: Surface energy components and land characteristics of a rice paddy. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46 , 18791900.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsuang, B-J., 2003: Quantification on the source/receptor relationship of primary pollutants and secondary aerosols by a Gaussian plume trajectory model: Part I—Theory. Atmos. Environ., 37 , 39813991.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsuang, B-J., 2005: Ground heat flux determination according to land skin temperature observations from in situ stations and satellites. J. Hydrometeor., 6 , 371390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsuang, B-J., , Tsai J-L. , , Lin M-D. , , and Chen C-L. , 2003: Determining aerodynamic roughness using tethersonde and heat flux measurements in an urban area over a complex terrain. Atmos. Environ., 37 , 19932003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Twine, T. E., and Coauthors, 2000: Correcting eddy-covariance flux underestimates over a grassland. Agric. For. Meteor., 103 , 279300.

  • U.S. EPA, 2004: User’s guide for the AERMOD Meteorological Preprocessor (AERMET). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rep. EPA-454/B-03-002, 252 pp. [Available online at http://www.epa.gov/scram001/7thconf/aermod/aermetugb.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verma, S. B., , Baldocchi D. D. , , Anderson D. E. , , Matt D. R. , , and Clement R. E. , 1986: Eddy fluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat over a deciduous forest. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 36 , 7191.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webb, E. K., , Pearman G. I. , , and Leuning R. , 1980: Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapor transfer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 106 , 6790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wieringa, J., 1993: Representative roughness parameters for homogeneous terrain. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 63 , 323363.

  • Wilczak, J. M., , Oncley S. P. , , and Stage S. A. , 2001: Sonic Anemometer Tilt Correction Algorithms. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 99 , 127150.

  • Wilson, K., and Coauthors, 2002: Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites. Agric. For. Meteor., 113 , 223243.

  • Zeng, X., , and Wang A. , 2007: Consistent parameterization of roughness length and displacement height for sparse and dense canopies in land models. J. Hydrometeor., 8 , 730737.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 62 62 6
PDF Downloads 56 56 9

Measurements of Aerodynamic Roughness, Bowen Ratio, and Atmospheric Surface Layer Height by Eddy Covariance and Tethersonde Systems Simultaneously over a Heterogeneous Rice Paddy

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
  • | 2 Department and Graduate School of Safety Health and Environment Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan
  • | 3 Agricultural Engineering Division, Agricultural Research Institute, Taichung, Taiwan
  • | 4 Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

The aerodynamic roughness, Bowen ratio, and friction velocity were measured over a rice paddy using tethersonde and eddy covariance (EC) systems. In addition, the height ranges of the atmospheric inertial sublayer (ISL) were derived using the tethersonde data. Comparison of the friction velocity, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and Bowen ratio estimated from these systems show their correlation coefficients to be >0.7. This difference between the observational systems can be associated with their respective footprint areas. The aerodynamic roughness was observed to be about 0.03 m for wind blowing from a paddy-dominated area (PDA) and about 0.37 m from a rice paddy interspersed with buildings (PIB) based on the ISL profile. Results are close to the effective roughness length model of Mason, having the same shear stresses at the blending height. In contrast, both the geometric mean model of Taylor and the arithmetic mean model of Tsai and Tsuang underestimate the effective roughness over the PIB. During daylight hours, the height range of the ISL ranged from a few meters to 25 m above ground level (AGL) for wind blowing from the PDA and 14–42 m for wind blowing from the PIB.

Corresponding author address: Ben-Jei Tsuang, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan. Email: tsuang@nchu.edu.tw

Abstract

The aerodynamic roughness, Bowen ratio, and friction velocity were measured over a rice paddy using tethersonde and eddy covariance (EC) systems. In addition, the height ranges of the atmospheric inertial sublayer (ISL) were derived using the tethersonde data. Comparison of the friction velocity, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and Bowen ratio estimated from these systems show their correlation coefficients to be >0.7. This difference between the observational systems can be associated with their respective footprint areas. The aerodynamic roughness was observed to be about 0.03 m for wind blowing from a paddy-dominated area (PDA) and about 0.37 m from a rice paddy interspersed with buildings (PIB) based on the ISL profile. Results are close to the effective roughness length model of Mason, having the same shear stresses at the blending height. In contrast, both the geometric mean model of Taylor and the arithmetic mean model of Tsai and Tsuang underestimate the effective roughness over the PIB. During daylight hours, the height range of the ISL ranged from a few meters to 25 m above ground level (AGL) for wind blowing from the PDA and 14–42 m for wind blowing from the PIB.

Corresponding author address: Ben-Jei Tsuang, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan. Email: tsuang@nchu.edu.tw

Save