• Carril, A. F., , Doyle M. E. , , Barros V. R. , , and Núñez M. N. , 1997: Impacts of climate change on the oases of the Argentinean Cordillera. Climate Res., 9 , 121129.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Compagnucci, R. H., , and Vargas W. M. , 1998: Inter-annual variability of the Cuyo Rivers’ streamflow in the Argentinean Andes mountains and ENSO events. Int. J. Climatol., 18 , 15931609.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Compagnucci, R. H., , Blanco S. A. , , Figliola M. A. , , and Jacovkis P. M. , 2000: Variability in subtropical Andean Argentinean Atuel river; a wavelet approach. Environmetrics, 11 , 251269.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dettinger, M. D., , Battisti D. S. , , Garreaud R. D. , , McCabe G. J. Jr., , and Bitz C. M. , 2000: Interhemispheric effects of interannual and decadal ENSO-like climate variations on the Americas. Interhemispheric Climate Linkages, V. Markgraf, Ed., Academic Press, 1–16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Escobar, F., , and Aceituno P. , 1998: ENSO influence on Andean winter snowfall in central Chile (in Spanish). Bull. Inst. Fr. Etud. And., 27 (3) 753759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Falvey, M., , and Garreaud R. , 2009: Regional cooling in a warming world: Recent temperature trends in the SE Pacific and along the west coast of subtropical South America (1979-2006). J. Geophys. Res., 114 , D04102. doi:10.1029/2008JD010519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamed, K. H., , and Rao A. R. , 1998: A modified Mann-Kendall trend test for autocorrelated data. J. Hydrol., 204 , 182196.

  • Le Quesne, C., , Stahle D. W. , , Cleaveland M. K. , , Therrell M. D. , , Aravena J. C. , , and Barichivich J. , 2006: Ancient Austrocedrus tree-ring chronologies used to reconstruct central Chile precipitation variability from a.d. 1200 to 2000. J. Climate, 19 , 57315744.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, H. B., 1945: Nonparametric test against trend. Econometrica, 13 , 245259.

  • Mann, H. B., , and Whitney D. R. , 1947: On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. Ann. Math. Stat., 18 , 5060.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mantua, N. J., , and Hare S. R. , 2002: The Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Oceanogr., 58 , 3544.

  • Mantua, N. J., , Hare S. R. , , Zhang Y. , , Wallace J. M. , , and Francis R. C. , 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 10691079.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masiokas, M. H., , Villalba R. , , Luckman B. H. , , Le Quesne C. , , and Aravena J. C. , 2006: Snowpack variations in the central Andes of Argentina and Chile, 1951–2005: Large-scale atmospheric influences and implications for water resources in the region. J. Climate, 19 , 63346352.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masiokas, M. H., , Rivera A. , , Espizua L. E. , , Villalba R. , , Delgado S. , , and Aravena J. C. , 2009: Glacier fluctuations in extratropical South America during the past 1000 years. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 281 , (3–4). 242268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mauget, S. A., 2003: Intra-to multidecadal climate variability over the continental United States: 1932–99. J. Climate, 16 , 22152231.

  • Mauget, S. A., 2004: Low frequency streamflow regimes over the central United States: 1939-1998. Climatic Change, 63 , 121144.

  • Mendenhall, W., , Wackerly D. D. , , and Sheaffer R. L. , 1990: Mathematical Statistics with Applications. 4th ed. PWS-Kent, 788 pp.

  • Osborn, T. J., , Briffa K. R. , , and Jones P. D. , 1997: Adjusting variance for sample-size in tree-ring chronologies and other regional-mean time-series. Dendrochronologia, 15 , 8999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pellicciotti, F., , Burlando P. , , and Van Vliet K. , 2007: Recent trends in precipitation and streamflow in the Aconcagua River basin, central Chile. IAHS Publ., 318 , 1738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodionov, S. N., 2004: A sequential algorithm for testing climate regime shifts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 , L09204. doi:10.1029/2004GL019448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodionov, S. N., 2006: The use of prewhitening in climate regime shift detection. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L12707. doi:10.1029/2006GL025904.

  • Rutlland, J., , and Fuenzalida H. , 1991: Synoptic aspects of the central Chile rainfall variability associated with the Southern Oscillation. Int. J. Climatol., 11 , 6376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santer, B. D., , Wigley T. M. L. , , Boyle J. S. , , Gaffen D. J. , , Hnilo J. J. , , Nychka D. , , Parker D. E. , , and Taylor K. E. , 2000: Statistical significance of trends and trend differences in layer-average atmospheric temperature time series. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , (D6). 73377356.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vicuna, S., , and Dracup J. A. , 2007: The evolution of climate change impact studies on hydrology and water resources in California. Climatic Change, 82 , 327350.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilcoxon, F., 1945: Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biom. Bull., 1 , 8083.

  • Wilks, D. S., 1995: Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. Academic Press, 464 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 42 42 12
PDF Downloads 40 40 8

Intra- to Multidecadal Variations of Snowpack and Streamflow Records in the Andes of Chile and Argentina between 30° and 37°S

View More View Less
  • 1 Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina
  • | 2 Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
  • | 3 Wind Erosion and Water Conservation Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Lubbock, Texas
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

In a recent study the authors developed the first regionally averaged, transnational records of snowpack and streamflow for the Andes between 30° and 37°S using Chilean and Argentinean data. That study was mainly intended to evaluate the relationships between the interannual variations in the regional snowpack record and large-scale atmospheric variables and indices. Here the focus is on the main intra- to multidecadal variations in updated records of winter snowpack and mean annual river flows. River discharges show similar temporal variations on both sides of the Andes with extreme dry conditions concentrated between the mid-1940s and 1976/77 and extreme wet conditions peaking between the late 1970s and the 1980s. A regional streamflow composite (1906–2007) has a nonsignificant negative trend but significant regime shifts in 1945, when mean levels dropped 31%, and in 1977 when they increased 28%. These events coincide almost exactly with well-known shifts in the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). The analyses are preliminary but suggest a PDO influence on the low-frequency modes of hydroclimatic variability in the study area. Analyses of the magnitude of 5–20-yr moving windows in the regional streamflow composite indicate that the most significant concentration of high (low) discharges occurred between 1977 and 1987 (1954 and 1971). Snowpack series show a more heterogeneous pattern of variations on a local basis but when aggregated into a regional series (1951–2008) they share remarkable similarities with river flows. However, the snowpack composite has a stronger year-to-year variability, a slight positive trend, and no significant regime shifts.

Corresponding author address: Mariano H. Masiokas, Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET, C.C. 330 (5500) Mendoza, Argentina. Email: mmasiokas@mendoza-conicet.gov.ar

Abstract

In a recent study the authors developed the first regionally averaged, transnational records of snowpack and streamflow for the Andes between 30° and 37°S using Chilean and Argentinean data. That study was mainly intended to evaluate the relationships between the interannual variations in the regional snowpack record and large-scale atmospheric variables and indices. Here the focus is on the main intra- to multidecadal variations in updated records of winter snowpack and mean annual river flows. River discharges show similar temporal variations on both sides of the Andes with extreme dry conditions concentrated between the mid-1940s and 1976/77 and extreme wet conditions peaking between the late 1970s and the 1980s. A regional streamflow composite (1906–2007) has a nonsignificant negative trend but significant regime shifts in 1945, when mean levels dropped 31%, and in 1977 when they increased 28%. These events coincide almost exactly with well-known shifts in the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). The analyses are preliminary but suggest a PDO influence on the low-frequency modes of hydroclimatic variability in the study area. Analyses of the magnitude of 5–20-yr moving windows in the regional streamflow composite indicate that the most significant concentration of high (low) discharges occurred between 1977 and 1987 (1954 and 1971). Snowpack series show a more heterogeneous pattern of variations on a local basis but when aggregated into a regional series (1951–2008) they share remarkable similarities with river flows. However, the snowpack composite has a stronger year-to-year variability, a slight positive trend, and no significant regime shifts.

Corresponding author address: Mariano H. Masiokas, Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET, C.C. 330 (5500) Mendoza, Argentina. Email: mmasiokas@mendoza-conicet.gov.ar

Save