• Barstad, I., , Sorteberg A. , , Flatøy F. , , and Déqué M. , 2009: Precipitation, temperature and wind in Norway: Dynamical downscaling of ERA40. Climate Dyn., 33, 769776, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0476-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bélair, S., , Crevier L.-P. , , Mailhot J. , , Bilodeau B. , , and Delage Y. , 2003a: Operational implementation of the ISBA land surface scheme in the Canadian regional weather forecast model. Part I: Warm season results. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 352370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bélair, S., , Brown R. , , Mailhot J. , , and Bilodeau B. , 2003b: Operational implementation of the ISBA land surface scheme in the Canadian regional weather forecast model. Part II: Cold season results. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 371386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bélair, S., , Roch M. , , Leduc A.-M. , , Vaillancourt P. , , Laroche S. , , and Mailhot J. , 2009: Medium-range quantitative precipitation forecasts from Canada’s new 33-km deterministic global operational system. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 690708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhumralkar, C. M., 1975: Numerical experiments on the computation of ground surface temperature in an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Appl. Meteor., 14, 12461258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Goncalves, L. G. G., , Shuttleworth W. J. , , Burke E. J. , , Houser P. , , Toll D. L. , , Rodell M. , , and Arsenault K. , 2006: Toward a South America land data assimilation system: Aspects of land surface model spin-up using the simplified simple biosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D17110, doi:10.1029/2005JD006297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dodson, R., , and Marks D. , 1997: Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region. Climate Res., 8, 120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douville, H., , Royer J.-F. , , and Mahfouf J.-F. , 1995: A new snow parameterization for the Météo-France climate model. Part I: Validation in stand-alone experiments. Climate Dyn., 12, 2135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fridley, J. D., 2009: Downscaling climate over complex terrain: High finescale (<1000 m) spatial variation of near-ground temperatures in a montane forested landscape (Great Smokey Mountains). J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48, 10331049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grant, A., , and Mason P. , 1990: Observations of boundary-layer structure over complex terrain. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 116, 159186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartman, M. D., , Baron J. S. , , Lammers R. B. , , Cline D. W. , , Band L. E. , , Liston G. E. , , and Tague C. , 1999: Simulations of snow distribution and hydrology in a mountain basin. Water Resour. Res., 35, 15871603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jackson, S. I., , and Prowse T. D. , 2009: Spatial variation of snowmelt and sublimation in a high-elevation semi-desert basin of western Canada. Hydrol. Processes, 23, 26112627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liston, G. E., 2004: Representing subgrid snow cover heterogeneities in regional and global models. J. Climate, 17, 13811397.

  • Loth, B., , Graf H.-F. , , and Oberhuber J. M. , 1993: Snow cover model for global climate simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 98 (D6), 10 45110 464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mailhot, J., and Coauthors, 2006: The 15-km version of the Canadian regional forecast system. Atmos.–Ocean, 44, 133149.

  • Mailhot, J., and Coauthors, 2010: Environment Canada’s experimental numerical weather prediction systems for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 10731085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noilhan, J., , and Planton S. , 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 536549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheridan, P., , Smith S. , , Brown A. , , and Vosper S. , 2010: A simple height-based correction for temperature downscaling in complex terrain. Meteor. Appl., 17, 329339, doi:10.1002/met.177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slater, A. G., and Coauthors, 2001: The representation of snow in land surface schemes: Results from PILPS 2(d). J. Hydrometeor., 2, 725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stahl, K., , Moore R. , , Floyer J. , , Asplin M. , , and McKendry I. , 2006: Comparison of approaches for spatial interpolation of daily air temperature in a large region with complex topography and highly variable station density. Agric. For. Meteor., 139, 224236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stewart, I., , Cayan D. R. , , and Dettinger M. , 2004: Changes in snowmelt runoff timing in western North America under a ‘business as usual’ climate change scenario. Climatic Change, 62, 217232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strack, J. E., , Liston G. E. , , and Pielke R. A. Sr., 2004: Modeling snow depth for improved simulation of snow–vegetation–atmosphere interactions. J. Hydrometeor., 5, 723734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tribbeck, M. J., , Gurney R. J. , , and Morris E. M. , 2006: The radiative effect of a fir canopy on a snowpack. J. Hydrometeor., 7, 880895.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trivedi, M. R., , Berry P. M. , , Morecroft M. D. , , and Dawson T. P. , 2008: Spatial scale affects bioclimate model projections of climate change impacts on mountain plants. Global Change Biol., 14, 10891103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, L. J., , and Vallée M. , 2003: The Canadian Updateable Model Output Statistics (UMOS) system: Validation against perfect prog. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 288302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zadra, A., , Roch M. , , Laroche S. , , and Charron M. , 2003: The subgrid-scale orographic blocking parametrization of the GEM model. Atmos.–Ocean, 41, 155170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 18 18 1
PDF Downloads 17 17 0

Near-Surface and Land Surface Forecast System of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

View More View Less
  • 1 Meteorological Research Division, Dorval, Quebec, Canada
  • 2 Meteorological Service of Canada, Dorval, Quebec, Canada
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

A high-resolution 2D near-surface and land surface model was developed to produce snow and temperature forecasts over the complex alpine region of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. The model is driven by downscaled operational outputs from the Meteorological Service of Canada’s regional and global forecast models. Downscaling is applied to correct forcings for elevation differences between the operational forecast models and the high-resolution surface model. The high-resolution near-surface and land surface model is then used to further refine the forecasts. The model was validated against temperature and snow depth observations. The largest improvements were found in regions where low-resolution (i.e., on the order of 10 km or more) operational models typically lack the spatial resolution to capture rapid elevation changes. The model was found to better reproduce the intermittent snow cover at low-lying stations and to reduce snow depth error by as much as 3 m at alpine stations.

Corresponding author address: Natacha B. Bernier, Meteorological Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 2121 Trans-Canada Highway, 5th Floor, Dorval QC H9P 1J3, Canada. E-mail: natacha.bernier@ec.gc.ca

Abstract

A high-resolution 2D near-surface and land surface model was developed to produce snow and temperature forecasts over the complex alpine region of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. The model is driven by downscaled operational outputs from the Meteorological Service of Canada’s regional and global forecast models. Downscaling is applied to correct forcings for elevation differences between the operational forecast models and the high-resolution surface model. The high-resolution near-surface and land surface model is then used to further refine the forecasts. The model was validated against temperature and snow depth observations. The largest improvements were found in regions where low-resolution (i.e., on the order of 10 km or more) operational models typically lack the spatial resolution to capture rapid elevation changes. The model was found to better reproduce the intermittent snow cover at low-lying stations and to reduce snow depth error by as much as 3 m at alpine stations.

Corresponding author address: Natacha B. Bernier, Meteorological Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 2121 Trans-Canada Highway, 5th Floor, Dorval QC H9P 1J3, Canada. E-mail: natacha.bernier@ec.gc.ca
Save