• Adegoke, J. O., , Pielke R. A. , , Eastman J. , , Mahmood R. , , and Hubbard K. G. , 2003: Impact of irrigation on midsummer surface fluxes and temperature under dry synoptic conditions: A regional atmospheric model study of the U.S. High Plains. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 556564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baidya Roy, S., , Hurtt G. C. , , Weaver C. P. , , and Pacala S. W. , 2003: Impact of historical land cover change on the July climate of the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4793, doi:10.1029/2003JD003565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Banacos, P. C., , and Schultz D. M. , 2005: The use of moisture flux convergence in forecasting convective initiation: Historical and operational perspectives. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 351366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnston, A. G., , and Schickedanz P. T. , 1984: The effect of irrigation on warm season precipitation in the southern Great Plains. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 865888.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Betts, R. A., , Cox P. M. , , Lee S. E. , , and Woodward F. I. , 1997: Contrasting physiological and structural vegetation feedbacks in climate change simulations. Nature, 387, 796799.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., 1993: Observations and Theory of Weather Systems. Vol. 2, Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes, Oxford University Press, 594 pp.

  • Boucher, O., , Myhre G. , , and Myhre A. , 2004: Direct human influence of irrigation on atmospheric water vapour and climate. Climate Dyn., 22, 597603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Changnon, S. A., 2001: Thunderstorm rainfall in the conterminous United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 19251940.

  • Chen, F., , and Dudhia J. , 2001: Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 569585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, F., , Manning K. W. , , Yates D. N. , , LeMone M. A. , , Trier S. B. , , Cuenca R. , , and Niyogi D. , 2004: Development of high resolution land data assimilation system and its application to WRF. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 22.3. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/84Annual/techprogram/paper_67333.htm.]

  • Crook, N. A., 1996: Sensitivity of moist convection forced by boundary layer processes to low-level thermodynamic fields. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 17671785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeAngelis, A., , Dominguez F. , , Fan Y. , , Robock A. , , Kustu M. D. , , and Robinson D. , 2010: Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D15115, doi:10.1029/2010JD013892.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Ridder, K., , and Gallée H. , 1998: Land surface–induced regional climate change in southern Israel. J. Appl. Meteor., 37, 14701485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 30773107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Findell, K. L., , and Eltahir E. A. B. , 2003a: Atmospheric controls on soil moisture–boundary layer interactions. Part I: Framework development. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 552569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Findell, K. L., , and Eltahir E. A. B. , 2003b: Atmospheric controls on soil moisture–boundary layer interactions. Part II: Feedbacks within the continental United States. J. Hydrometeor., 4, 570583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedl, M., and Coauthors, 2002: Global land cover mapping from MODIS: Algorithms and early results. Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 287302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gregory, J. M., , Mitchell J. F. B. , , and Brady A. J. , 1997: Summer drought in northern midlatitudes in a time-dependent CO2 climate experiment. J. Climate, 10, 662686.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harding, K. J., , and Snyder P. K. , 2012: Modeling the atmospheric response to irrigation in the Great Plains. Part II: The precipitation of irrigated water and changes in precipitation recycling. J. Hydrometeor., 13, 16861702.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higgins, R. W., , Shi W. , , Yarosh E. , , and Joyce R. , 2000: Improved United States precipitation quality control system and analysis. NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS 7, 40 pp.

  • Hong, S. B., , Lakshmi V. , , Small E. E. , , Chen F. , , Tewari M. , , and Manning K. W. , 2009: Effects of vegetation and soil moisture on the simulated land surface processes from the coupled WRF/Noah model. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D18118, doi:10.1029/2008JD011249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, S. Y., , Noh Y. , , and Dudhia J. , 2006: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 23182341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutson, S. S., , Barber N. L. , , Kenny J. F. , , Linsey K. S. , , Lumia D. S. , , and Maupin M. A. , 2004: Estimated use of water in the United States in 2000. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1268, 46 pp.

  • Jacquemin, B., , and Noilhan J. , 1990: Sensitivity study and validation of a land surface parameterization using the HAPEX-MOBILHY data set. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 52, 93134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jódar, J., , Carrera J. , , and Cruz A. , 2010: Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 20032010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kain, J. S., and Coauthors, 2008: Some practical considerations regarding horizontal resolution in the first generation of operational convection-allowing NWP. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 931952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., , Ebisuzaki W. , , Woollen J. , , Yang S. K. , , Hnilo J. J. , , Fiorino M. , , and Potter G. L. , 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koster, R. D., and Coauthors, 2004: Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation. Science, 305, 11381140.

  • Kueppers, L. M., , Snyder M. A. , , and Sloan L. C. , 2007: Irrigation cooling effect: Regional climate forcing by land-use change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L03703, doi:10.1029/2006GL028679.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumar, S., 2007: Fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Important observations and conclusions. Curr. Sci., 92, 1034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, E., , Sacks W. , , Chase T. , , and Foley J. , 2011: Simulated impacts of irrigation on the atmospheric circulation over Asia. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08114, doi:10.1029/2010JD014740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, Y., , and Mitchell K. , 2005: The NCEP stage II/IV hourly precipitation analyses: Development and applications. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Hydrology, San Diego, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1.2. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/Annual2005/techprogram/paper_83847.htm.]

  • Lobell, D. B., , Bala G. , , and Duffy P. B. , 2006: Biogeophysical impacts of cropland management changes on climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06708, doi:10.1029/2005GL025492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahmood, R., , Hubbard K. G. , , and Carlson C. , 2004: Modification of growing-season surface temperature records in the northern Great Plains due to land-use transformation: Verification of modelling results and implication for global climate change. Int. J. Climatol., 24, 311327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahmood, R., , Foster S. A. , , Keeling T. , , Hubbard K. G. , , Carlson C. , , and Leeper R. , 2006: Impacts of irrigation on 20th century temperature in the northern Great Plains. Global Planet. Change, 54, 118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manabe, S., , Wetherald R. , , Milly P. , , Delworth T. , , and Stouffer R. , 2004: Century-scale change in water availability: CO2-quadrupling experiment. Climatic Change, 64, 5976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGuire, V. L., 2007: Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Rep. 2006-5324, 7 pp.

  • McGuire, V. L., , Johnson M. R. , , Schieffer R. L. , , Stanton J. S. , , Sebree S. K. , , and Verstraeten I. M. , 2003: Water in storage and approaches to ground-water management, High Plains aquifer, 2000. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1243, 51 pp.

  • Mesinger, F., and Coauthors, 2006: North American Regional Reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 343360.

  • Mlawer, E. J., , Taubman S. J. , , Brown P. D. , , Iacono M. J. , , and Clough S. A. , 1997: Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D14), 16 66316 682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, N., , and Rojstaczer S. , 2001: Irrigation-induced rainfall and the great plains. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 12971309.

  • Morrison, H., , Thompson G. , , and Tatarskii V. , 2009: Impact of cloud microphysics on the development of trailing stratiform precipitation in a simulated squall line: Comparison of one- and two-moment schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 9911007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NASS, 2002: Farm and ranch irrigation survey. Geographic Area Series, Vol. I, 2002 Census of Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture [Available online at http://www.nass.usda.gov/Census/Create_Census_FRIS.jsp.]

  • Noilhan, J., , and Planton S. , 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 536549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ozdogan, M., , and Gutman G. , 2008: A new methodology to map irrigated areas using multi-temporal MODIS and ancillary data: An application example in the continental US. Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 35203537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ozdogan, M., , Rodell M. , , Beaudoing H. K. , , and Toll D. L. , 2010: Simulating the effects of irrigation over the United States in a land surface model based on satellite-derived agricultural data. J. Hydrometeor., 11, 171184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pielke, R. A., 2001: Influence of the spatial distribution of vegetation and soils on the prediction of cumulus convective rainfall. Rev. Geophys., 39, 151177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pielke, R. A., , Lee T. J. , , Copeland J. H. , , Eastman J. L. , , Ziegler C. L. , , and Finley C. A. , 1997: Use of USGS-provided data to improve weather and climate simulations. Ecol. Appl., 7, 321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Puma, M. J., , and Cook B. I. , 2010: Effects of irrigation on global climate during the 20th century. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D16120, doi:10.1029/2010JD014122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rind, D., , Goldberg R. , , Hansen J. , , Rosenzweig C. , , and Ruedy R. , 1990: Potential evapotranspiration and the likelihood of future drought. J. Geophys. Res., 95 (D7), 998310 004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sacks, W. J., , Cook B. I. , , Buenning N. , , Levis S. , , and Helkowski J. H. , 2009: Effects of global irrigation on the near-surface climate. Climate Dyn., 33, 159175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Segal, M., , Pan Z. , , Turner R. W. , , and Takle E. S. , 1998: On the potential impact of irrigated areas in North America on summer rainfall caused by large-scale systems. J. Appl. Meteor., 37, 325331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113 pp.

  • Solomon, S., , Qin D. , , Manning M. , , Marquis M. , , Averyt K. , , Tignor M. M. B. , , Miller H. L. Jr., , and Chen Z. , Eds., 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.

  • Trenberth, K. E., , Dai A. , , Rasmussen R. M. , , and Parsons D. B. , 2003: The changing character of precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 12051217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Twine, T. E., and Coauthors, 2000: Correcting eddy-covariance flux underestimates over a grassland. Agric. For. Meteor., 103, 279300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Twine, T. E., , Kucharik C. J. , , and Foley J. A. , 2005: Effects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on the climate, water balance, and streamflow of the Mississippi River basin. J. Climate, 18, 48404861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verma, S., and Coauthors, 2005: Annual carbon dioxide exchange in irrigated and rainfed maize-based agroecosystems. Agric. For. Meteor., 131, 7796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, G., 2005: Agricultural drought in a future climate: Results from 15 global climate models participating in the IPCC 4th assessment. Climate Dyn., 25, 739753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wetherald, R. T., , and Manabe S. , 1995: The mechanisms of summer dryness induced by greenhouse warming. J. Climate, 8, 30963108.

  • Wetherald, R. T., , and Manabe S. , 1999: Detectability of summer dryness caused by greenhouse warming. Climatic Change, 43, 495511.

  • Wilson, J. W., , and Roberts R. D. , 2006: Summary of convective storm initiation and evolution during IHOP: Observational and modeling perspective. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, K., and Coauthors, 2002: Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites. Agric. For. Meteor., 113, 223243.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 134 134 40
PDF Downloads 78 78 29

Modeling the Atmospheric Response to Irrigation in the Great Plains. Part I: General Impacts on Precipitation and the Energy Budget

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Since World War II, the expansion of irrigation throughout the Great Plains has resulted in a significant decline in the water table of the Ogallala Aquifer, threatening its long-term sustainability. The addition of near-surface water for irrigation has previously been shown to impact the surface energy and water budgets by modifying the partitioning of latent and sensible heating. A strong increase in latent heating drives near-surface cooling and an increase in humidity, which has opposing impacts on convective precipitation. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) was modified to simulate the effects of irrigation on precipitation. Using a satellite-derived fractional irrigation dataset, grid cells were divided into irrigated and nonirrigated segments and the near-surface soil layer within irrigated segments was held at saturation. Nine April–October periods (three drought, three normal, and three pluvial) were simulated over the Great Plains. Averaging over all simulations, May–September precipitation increased by 4.97 mm (0.91%), with localized increases of up to 20%. The largest precipitation increases occurred during pluvial years (6.14 mm; 0.98%) and the smallest increases occurred during drought years (2.85 mm; 0.63%). Precipitation increased by 7.86 mm (1.61%) over irrigated areas from the enhancement of elevated nocturnal convection. Significant precipitation increases occurred over irrigated areas during normal and pluvial years, with decreases during drought years. This suggests that a soil moisture threshold likely exists whereby irrigation suppresses convection over irrigated areas when soil moisture is extremely low and enhances convection when antecedent soil moisture is relatively high.

Corresponding author address: Peter K. Snyder, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul, MN 55108. E-mail: pksnyder@umn.edu

This article is included in the Exchanges of Energy and Water at the Land-Atmosphere Interface special collection.

Abstract

Since World War II, the expansion of irrigation throughout the Great Plains has resulted in a significant decline in the water table of the Ogallala Aquifer, threatening its long-term sustainability. The addition of near-surface water for irrigation has previously been shown to impact the surface energy and water budgets by modifying the partitioning of latent and sensible heating. A strong increase in latent heating drives near-surface cooling and an increase in humidity, which has opposing impacts on convective precipitation. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) was modified to simulate the effects of irrigation on precipitation. Using a satellite-derived fractional irrigation dataset, grid cells were divided into irrigated and nonirrigated segments and the near-surface soil layer within irrigated segments was held at saturation. Nine April–October periods (three drought, three normal, and three pluvial) were simulated over the Great Plains. Averaging over all simulations, May–September precipitation increased by 4.97 mm (0.91%), with localized increases of up to 20%. The largest precipitation increases occurred during pluvial years (6.14 mm; 0.98%) and the smallest increases occurred during drought years (2.85 mm; 0.63%). Precipitation increased by 7.86 mm (1.61%) over irrigated areas from the enhancement of elevated nocturnal convection. Significant precipitation increases occurred over irrigated areas during normal and pluvial years, with decreases during drought years. This suggests that a soil moisture threshold likely exists whereby irrigation suppresses convection over irrigated areas when soil moisture is extremely low and enhances convection when antecedent soil moisture is relatively high.

Corresponding author address: Peter K. Snyder, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul, MN 55108. E-mail: pksnyder@umn.edu

This article is included in the Exchanges of Energy and Water at the Land-Atmosphere Interface special collection.

Save