Urbanization and Rainfall Variability in the Beijing Metropolitan Region

Yan Zhang Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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James A. Smith Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

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Lifeng Luo Department of Geography, and Center for Global Change and Earth Observations, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

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Zifa Wang State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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Mary Lynn Baeck Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

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Abstract

In this study, rainfall variability in the Beijing metropolitan region and its link to urbanization during the first 10 years of the twenty-first century (2000–09) was examined. Analyses are based on both observations and regional climate model simulations. The study was focused on August, one of the summer months that receive most of the warm season precipitation in Beijing. Observations from surface stations and weather radars in Beijing and its surrounding regions along with satellite observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation. It is found that the urban area has fewer rain days and higher rainfall intensity compared to its surrounding region. This suggests a possible impact of urbanization on the spatial variability of rainfall for the region. Regional climate model simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are thus performed with two land use–land cover datasets that represent different stages of urbanization in the Beijing metropolitan region to investigate such an impact. The modeling study demonstrates how urbanization modifies the surface energy budget and the planetary boundary layer, which in turn affects the production of precipitation.

Corresponding author address: Lifeng Luo, Ph.D., Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 122 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48824. E-mail: lluo@msu.edu

Abstract

In this study, rainfall variability in the Beijing metropolitan region and its link to urbanization during the first 10 years of the twenty-first century (2000–09) was examined. Analyses are based on both observations and regional climate model simulations. The study was focused on August, one of the summer months that receive most of the warm season precipitation in Beijing. Observations from surface stations and weather radars in Beijing and its surrounding regions along with satellite observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation. It is found that the urban area has fewer rain days and higher rainfall intensity compared to its surrounding region. This suggests a possible impact of urbanization on the spatial variability of rainfall for the region. Regional climate model simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are thus performed with two land use–land cover datasets that represent different stages of urbanization in the Beijing metropolitan region to investigate such an impact. The modeling study demonstrates how urbanization modifies the surface energy budget and the planetary boundary layer, which in turn affects the production of precipitation.

Corresponding author address: Lifeng Luo, Ph.D., Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 122 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48824. E-mail: lluo@msu.edu
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