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On the Controls of Daytime Precipitation in the Amazonian Dry Season

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  • 1 Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois
  • | 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, and Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York
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Abstract

The Amazon plays an important role in the global energy and hydrological budgets. The precipitation during the dry season (June–September) plays a critical role in maintaining the extent of the rain forest. The deployment of the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the context of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign at Manacapuru, Brazil, provided comprehensive measurements of surface, cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thermodynamic properties for two complete dry seasons (2014 and 2015). The precipitation events occurring during the nighttime were associated with propagating storm systems (nonlocal effects), while the daytime precipitation events were primarily a result of local land–atmosphere interactions. During the two dry seasons, precipitation was recorded at the surface on 106 days (43%) from 158 rain events with 82 daytime precipitation events occurring on 64 days (60.37%). Detailed comparisons between the diurnal cycles of surface and profile properties between days with and without daytime precipitation suggested the increased moisture at low and midlevels to be responsible for lowering the lifting condensation level, reducing convective inhibition and entrainment, and thus triggering the transition from shallow to deep convection. Although the monthly accumulated rainfall decreased during the progression of the dry season, the contribution of daytime precipitation to it increased, suggesting the decrease to be mainly due to reduction in propagating squall lines. The control of daytime precipitation during the dry season on large-scale moisture advection above the boundary layer and the total rainfall on propagating squall lines suggests that coarse-resolution models should be able to accurately simulate the dry season precipitation over the Amazon basin.

Denotes Open Access content.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0101.s1.

Corresponding author address: Virendra P. Ghate, Environmental Sciences, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439. E-mail: vghate@anl.gov

Abstract

The Amazon plays an important role in the global energy and hydrological budgets. The precipitation during the dry season (June–September) plays a critical role in maintaining the extent of the rain forest. The deployment of the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the context of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign at Manacapuru, Brazil, provided comprehensive measurements of surface, cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thermodynamic properties for two complete dry seasons (2014 and 2015). The precipitation events occurring during the nighttime were associated with propagating storm systems (nonlocal effects), while the daytime precipitation events were primarily a result of local land–atmosphere interactions. During the two dry seasons, precipitation was recorded at the surface on 106 days (43%) from 158 rain events with 82 daytime precipitation events occurring on 64 days (60.37%). Detailed comparisons between the diurnal cycles of surface and profile properties between days with and without daytime precipitation suggested the increased moisture at low and midlevels to be responsible for lowering the lifting condensation level, reducing convective inhibition and entrainment, and thus triggering the transition from shallow to deep convection. Although the monthly accumulated rainfall decreased during the progression of the dry season, the contribution of daytime precipitation to it increased, suggesting the decrease to be mainly due to reduction in propagating squall lines. The control of daytime precipitation during the dry season on large-scale moisture advection above the boundary layer and the total rainfall on propagating squall lines suggests that coarse-resolution models should be able to accurately simulate the dry season precipitation over the Amazon basin.

Denotes Open Access content.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0101.s1.

Corresponding author address: Virendra P. Ghate, Environmental Sciences, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439. E-mail: vghate@anl.gov

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