Bias Correction of Historical and Future Simulations of Precipitation and Temperature for China from CMIP5 Models

X. Yang State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China

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E. F. Wood Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

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J. Sheffield Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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L. Ren State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China

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M. Zhang State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China

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Y. Wang State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China

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ABSTRACT

In this study, the equidistant cumulative distribution function (EDCDF) quantile-based mapping method was used to develop bias-corrected and downscaled monthly precipitation and temperature for China at 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution for the period 1961–2099 for eight CMIP5 GCM simulations. The downscaled dataset was constructed by combining observations from 756 meteorological stations across China with the monthly GCM outputs for the historical (1961–2005) and future (2006–99) periods for the lower (RCP2.6), medium (RCP4.5), and high (RCP8.5) representative concentration pathway emission scenarios. The jackknife method was used to cross validate the performance of the EDCDF method and was compared with the traditional quantile-based matching method (CDF method). This indicated that the performance of the two methods was generally comparable over the historic period, but the EDCDF was more efficient at reducing biases than the CDF method across China. The two methods had similar mean absolute error (MAE) for temperature in January and July. The EDCDF method had a slight advantage over the CDF method for precipitation, reducing the MAE by about 0.83% and 1.2% at a significance level of 95% in January and July, respectively. For future projections, both methods exhibited similar spatial patterns for longer periods (2061–90) under the RCP8.5 scenario. However, the EDCDF was more sensitive to a reduction in variability.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: L. Ren, rll@hhu.edu.cn

ABSTRACT

In this study, the equidistant cumulative distribution function (EDCDF) quantile-based mapping method was used to develop bias-corrected and downscaled monthly precipitation and temperature for China at 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution for the period 1961–2099 for eight CMIP5 GCM simulations. The downscaled dataset was constructed by combining observations from 756 meteorological stations across China with the monthly GCM outputs for the historical (1961–2005) and future (2006–99) periods for the lower (RCP2.6), medium (RCP4.5), and high (RCP8.5) representative concentration pathway emission scenarios. The jackknife method was used to cross validate the performance of the EDCDF method and was compared with the traditional quantile-based matching method (CDF method). This indicated that the performance of the two methods was generally comparable over the historic period, but the EDCDF was more efficient at reducing biases than the CDF method across China. The two methods had similar mean absolute error (MAE) for temperature in January and July. The EDCDF method had a slight advantage over the CDF method for precipitation, reducing the MAE by about 0.83% and 1.2% at a significance level of 95% in January and July, respectively. For future projections, both methods exhibited similar spatial patterns for longer periods (2061–90) under the RCP8.5 scenario. However, the EDCDF was more sensitive to a reduction in variability.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: L. Ren, rll@hhu.edu.cn
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