• Bao, X. H., and F. Q. Zhang, 2013: Impacts of the mountain–plains solenoid and cold pool dynamics on the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation over northern China. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 69656982, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-6965-2013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bao, X. H., F. Q. Zhang, and J. H. Sun, 2011: Diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation east of the Tibetan Plateau over China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 27902810, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00006.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carbone, R. E., J. D. Tuttle, D. Ahijevych, and S. B. Trier, 2002: Inferences of predictability associated with warm season precipitation episodes. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 20332056, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2033:IOPAWW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, M. X., Y. C. Wang, F. Gao, and X. Xiao, 2012: Diurnal variations in convective storm activity over contiguous North China during the warm season based on radar mosaic climatology. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D20115, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, M. X., Y. C. Wang, F. Gao, and X. Xiao, 2014: Diurnal evolution and distribution of warm-season convective storms in different prevailing wind regimes over contiguous North China. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 27422763, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD021145.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, X. C., K. Zhao, M. Xue, B. Zhou, X. Huang, and W. Xu, 2015: Radar-observed diurnal cycle and propagation of convection over the Pearl River Delta during mei-yu season. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 12 55712 575, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023872.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, X. C., F. Q. Zhang, and K. Zhao, 2017: Influence of monsoonal wind speed and moisture content on intensity and diurnal variations of the mei-yu season coastal rainfall over south China. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 28352856, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0081.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, W., and Coauthors, 2016: Summer rainfall over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau controlled by deep convection over the Indian subcontinent. Nat. Commun., 7, 10925, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10925.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo, J., and Coauthors, 2014: Diurnal variation and the influential factors of precipitation from surface and satellite measurements in Tibet. Int. J. Climatol., 34, 29402956, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3886.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, H., and F. Zhang, 2010: Diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation over northern China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 10171025, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3356.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, X., T. W. Wu, and L. Li, 2013: The quasi-stationary feature of nocturnal precipitation in the Sichuan Basin and the role of the Tibetan Plateau. Climate Dyn., 41, 977994, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1521-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levizzani, V., and Coauthors, 2010: A 10-year climatology of warm-season cloud patterns over Europe and the Mediterranean from Meteosat IR observations. Atmos. Res., 97, 555576, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.05.014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, J., T. R. Chen, and N. N. Li, 2017: Diurnal variation of summer precipitation across the central Tian Shan Mountains. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 56, 15371550, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0265.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, E., and Coauthors, 2015: Determining starting time and duration of extreme precipitation events based on intensity. Climate Res., 63, 3141, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01280.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, E., W. Zhao, X. K. Zou, D. X. Ye, C. Y. Zhao, and Q. Zhang, 2017: Temporal-spatial monitoring of an extreme precipitation event: Determining simultaneously the time period it lasts and the geographic region it affects. J. Climate, 30, 61236132, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0105.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, Y., and X. Wang, 2013: Geographic distribution and life cycle of mesoscale convective system over Taklimakan desert (in Chinese). J. Arid Land Resour. Environ., 6, http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GHZH201306031.htm.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pan, Y., Y. Shen, J. J. Yu, and P. Zhao, 2012: Analysis of the combined gauge-satellite hourly precipitation over China based on the OI technique (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 70, http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-QXXB201206021.htm.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rajaraman, A., and J. D. Ullman, 2011: Mining of Massive Datasets. Cambridge University Press, 236 pp.

  • Ramos da Silva, R., A. W. Gandu, L. D. A. , and D. M. A. F. Silva, 2011: Cloud streets and land–water interactions in the Amazon. Biogeochemistry, 105, 201211, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-011-9580-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryu, Y. H., J. A. Smith, M. L. Baeck, L. K. Cunha, E. Bou-Zeid, and W. Krajewski, 2016: The regional water cycle and heavy spring rainfall in Iowa: Observational and modeling analyses from the IFIoodS campaign. J. Hydrometeor., 17, 27632784, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-15-0174.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen, Y., P. Zhao, Y. Pan, and J. J. Yu, 2014: A high spatiotemporal gauge-satellite merged precipitation analysis over China. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 30633065, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020686.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, P., and K. Nakamura, 2010: Diurnal variation in summer monsoon precipitation during active and break periods over central India and southern Himalayan foothills. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D12122, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012794.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, J. H., and F. Q. Zhang, 2012: Impacts of mountain–plains solenoid on diurnal variations of rainfalls along the mei-yu front over the East China Plains. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 379397, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00041.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., A. Dai, R. M. Rasmussen, and D. B. Parsons, 2003: The changing character of precipitation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 12051217, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-84-9-1205.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, A. G., and H. Annamalai, 2012: Climate change and the South Asian summer monsoon. Nat. Climate Change, 2, 587595, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1495.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, 2012: Areal differences in diurnal variations in summer precipitation over Beijing metropolitan region. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 110, 395408, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-012-0636-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, A. M., and A. P. Barros, 2015: Landform controls on low level convergence and the diurnal cycle of warm season orographic rainfall in the Southern Appalachians. J. Hydrol., 531, 475493, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.10.068.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P. P., and A. Y. Xiong, 2011: A conceptual model for constructing high-resolution gauge-satellite merged precipitation analyses. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D21106, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeh, D. Z., and Y. X. Gao, 1979: Meteorology of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau (in Chinese). Science Press, 278 pp.

  • Yong, B., J. Wang, L. Ren, Y. You, P. Xie, and Y. Hong, 2016: Evaluating four multi-satellite precipitation estimates over Diaoyu Islands during typhoon seasons. J. Hydrometeor., 17, 16231641, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-15-0165.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, R. C., T. J. Zhou, A. Y. Xiong, Y. J. Zhu, and J. M. Li, 2007a: Diurnal variations of summer precipitation over contiguous China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01704, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028129.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, R. C., Y. P. Xu, T. J. Zhou, and J. Li, 2007b: Relation between rainfall duration and diurnal variation in the warm season precipitation over central eastern China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L13703, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030315.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, R. C., J. Li, H. M. Chen, and W. H. Yuan, 2014: Progress in studies of the precipitation diurnal variation over contiguous China. J. Meteor. Res., 28, 877902, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-014-3272-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuan, W. H., R. C. Yu, M. H. Zhang, W. Lin, H. M. Chen, and J. Li, 2012: Regimes of diurnal variation of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. J. Climate, 25, 33073320, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00288.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., J. Sun, and S. Fu, 2014: Impacts of diurnal variation of mountain-plain solenoid circulations on precipitation and vortices east of the Tibetan Plateau during the mei-yu season. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 31, 139153, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-013-2052-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T. J., R. C. Yu, H. Chen, A. Dai, and Y. Pan, 2008: Summer precipitation frequency, intensity, and diurnal cycle over China: A comparison of satellite data with rain gauge observations. J. Climate, 21, 39974010, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2028.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 66 66 17
PDF Downloads 53 53 11

Spatial Distribution of Diurnal Rainfall Variation in Summer over China

View More View Less
  • 1 Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Nanjing Normal University), Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution (Jiangsu Province), and Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China
  • 2 Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Nanjing Normal University), Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution (Jiangsu Province), and Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China, and Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 3 Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Nanjing Normal University), Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution (Jiangsu Province), and Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, China
  • 4 Chair of Hydrology and River Basin Management, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Diurnal rainfall variation plays an important role in the characterization of regional climate. Most existing research used predefined region boundaries to study the spatial differences of diurnal rainfall variation, which depends on experiential knowledge and is somewhat subjective. In this study, the k-means clustering algorithm was used to mine the spatial distribution of diurnal rainfall variation from gridded precipitation data over China. First, clustering was conducted according to the hourly rainfall frequency at each grid cell. A cluster number large enough to find the main types of diurnal rainfall variation was used. Then similar clusters were merged according to the peak time and amplitude of the diurnal rainfall variation. Each merged cluster corresponds to one type of diurnal variation, and the locations of grid cells in each merged cluster form the spatial distribution. Thus, the classification maps of diurnal rainfall variation can be obtained. From the spatial distribution maps, the conclusions of existing research (e.g., the distribution of well-known nocturnal rainfall in southwestern China, the prevailing afternoon rainfall regions) were confirmed. Some new findings were found, such as the spatial patterns of nocturnal rainfall regions along slopes of the macroterrain and the different types of diurnal rainfall variation in the North China Plain. The diurnal rainfall variation in some regions also shows a close relationship with land cover. The results of this study can provide valuable information for further mechanism studies, and the proposed approach can serve as a useful tool for studies on diurnal rainfall variation in other regions.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Junzhi Liu, liujunzhi@njnu.edu.cn

Abstract

Diurnal rainfall variation plays an important role in the characterization of regional climate. Most existing research used predefined region boundaries to study the spatial differences of diurnal rainfall variation, which depends on experiential knowledge and is somewhat subjective. In this study, the k-means clustering algorithm was used to mine the spatial distribution of diurnal rainfall variation from gridded precipitation data over China. First, clustering was conducted according to the hourly rainfall frequency at each grid cell. A cluster number large enough to find the main types of diurnal rainfall variation was used. Then similar clusters were merged according to the peak time and amplitude of the diurnal rainfall variation. Each merged cluster corresponds to one type of diurnal variation, and the locations of grid cells in each merged cluster form the spatial distribution. Thus, the classification maps of diurnal rainfall variation can be obtained. From the spatial distribution maps, the conclusions of existing research (e.g., the distribution of well-known nocturnal rainfall in southwestern China, the prevailing afternoon rainfall regions) were confirmed. Some new findings were found, such as the spatial patterns of nocturnal rainfall regions along slopes of the macroterrain and the different types of diurnal rainfall variation in the North China Plain. The diurnal rainfall variation in some regions also shows a close relationship with land cover. The results of this study can provide valuable information for further mechanism studies, and the proposed approach can serve as a useful tool for studies on diurnal rainfall variation in other regions.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Junzhi Liu, liujunzhi@njnu.edu.cn
Save