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Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution from Multisatellite Observations

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  • 1 Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland and Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland
  • | 2 Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 3 Environmental Verification and Analysis Center, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 4 Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland and Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland
  • | 5 Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland and Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland
  • | 6 Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Washington, D.C. and Research and Data Systems Corp., Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 7 Environmental Verification and Analysis Center, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 8 Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
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Abstract

The One-Degree Daily (1DD) technique is described for producing globally complete daily estimates of precipitation on a 1° × 1° lat/long grid from currently available observational data. Where possible (40°N–40°S), the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI) provides precipitation estimates in which the 3-hourly infrared brightness temperatures (IR Tb) are compared with a threshold and all “cold” pixels are given a single precipitation rate. This approach is an adaptation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Precipitation Index, but for the TMPI the IR Tb threshold and conditional rain rate are set locally by month from Special Sensor Microwave Imager–based precipitation frequency and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite–gauge (SG) combined monthly precipitation estimate, respectively. At higher latitudes the 1DD features a rescaled daily Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) precipitation. The frequency of rain days in the TOVS is scaled down to match that in the TMPI at the data boundaries, and the resulting nonzero TOVS values are scaled locally to sum to the SG (which is a globally complete monthly product).

The GPCP has approved the 1DD as an official product, and data have been produced for 1997 through 1999, with production continuing a few months behind real time (to allow access to monthly input data). The time series of the daily 1DD global images shows good continuity in time and across the data boundaries. Various examples are shown to illustrate uses. Validation for individual gridbox values shows a very high mean absolute error, but it improves quickly when users perform time/space averaging according to their own requirements.

Corresponding author address: Dr. George J. Huffman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Code 912, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

Email: huffman@agnes.gsfc.nasa.gov

Abstract

The One-Degree Daily (1DD) technique is described for producing globally complete daily estimates of precipitation on a 1° × 1° lat/long grid from currently available observational data. Where possible (40°N–40°S), the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI) provides precipitation estimates in which the 3-hourly infrared brightness temperatures (IR Tb) are compared with a threshold and all “cold” pixels are given a single precipitation rate. This approach is an adaptation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Precipitation Index, but for the TMPI the IR Tb threshold and conditional rain rate are set locally by month from Special Sensor Microwave Imager–based precipitation frequency and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite–gauge (SG) combined monthly precipitation estimate, respectively. At higher latitudes the 1DD features a rescaled daily Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) precipitation. The frequency of rain days in the TOVS is scaled down to match that in the TMPI at the data boundaries, and the resulting nonzero TOVS values are scaled locally to sum to the SG (which is a globally complete monthly product).

The GPCP has approved the 1DD as an official product, and data have been produced for 1997 through 1999, with production continuing a few months behind real time (to allow access to monthly input data). The time series of the daily 1DD global images shows good continuity in time and across the data boundaries. Various examples are shown to illustrate uses. Validation for individual gridbox values shows a very high mean absolute error, but it improves quickly when users perform time/space averaging according to their own requirements.

Corresponding author address: Dr. George J. Huffman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Code 912, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

Email: huffman@agnes.gsfc.nasa.gov

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