• Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeor., 4, 11471167, https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahlgrimm, M., and R. Forbes, 2014: Improving the representation of low clouds and drizzle in the ECMWF model based on ARM observations from the Azores. Mon. Wea. Rev., 142, 668685, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-13-00153.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bai, X., J. Wei, and H. Xie, 2017: Characteristics of wetness/dryness variation and their influences in the Three-River Headwaters region. Acta Ecol. Sin., 37, 83978410, https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201610102039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benjamin, S., and N. Seaman, 1985: A simple scheme for objective analysis in curved flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 11841198, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<1184:ASSFOA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai, Y., Z. Qian, T. Wu, X. Liang, and M. Song, 2004: Distribution, changes of atmospheric precipitable water over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its surroundings and their changeable precipitation climate. Plateau Meteor., 23, 110, https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-0534.2004.01.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, B., X. Xu, S. Yang, and Z. Wei, 2012: On the origin and destination of atmospheric moisture and air mass over the Tibetan Plateau. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 110, 423435, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-012-0641-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Y., J. Wen, R. Liu, Y. Jiang, G. Ren, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and Z. Liu, 2022: Analysis on the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of water vapor transport and budget over the source region of the Three-River. Plateau Meteor., 41, 167176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, Y., and X. Yang, 2009: Spatial-temporal variations of precipitable water over China. J. Meteor. Sci., 29, 143149, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60084-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, L., and T. Zhou, 2012: Water vapor transport for summer precipitation over the Tibetan plateau: Multidata set analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D20114, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD017012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gao, Y., 2017: Shift of the principal mode of Pan-Asian monsoon summer precipitation in terms of spatial pattern. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Lett., 10, 221227, https://doi.org/10.1080/16742834.2017.1294460.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hersbach, H., and Coauthors, 2019a: ERA5 monthly averaged data on pressure levels from 1979 to present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS), accessed 13 September 2021, https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.6860a573.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hersbach, H., and Coauthors, 2019b: ERA5 monthly averaged data on single levels from 1979 to present. Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Climate Data Store (CDS), accessed 13 September 2021, https://doi.org/10.24381/cds.f17050d7.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, Z., Q. Zhou, X. Chen, C. Qian, S. Wang, and J. Li, 2017: Variations and changes of annual precipitation in central Asia over the last century. Int. J. Climatol., 37, 157170, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4988.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, R., Z. Zhang, G. Huang, and B. Ren, 1998: Characteristics of the water vapor transport in East Asian Monsoon Region and its difference from that in South Asian Monsoon Region in summer. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 460469, https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1998.04.08.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J., and C. Deser, 2010: North Atlantic climate variability: The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Mar. Syst., 79, 231244, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.11.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, Z., Q. You, F. Wu, F. Wu, B. Sun, and Z. Cai, 2020: Changes of climate and climate extremes in the Three-Rivers’ headwaters region over the Tibetan Plateau during the past 60 years. Daqi Kexue Xuebao, 43, 10421055, https://doi.org/10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20201008001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, S., Y. Xu, Q. You, F. Wolfgang-Albert, N. Pepin, and T. Yao, 2010: Review of climate and cryospheric change in the Tibetan Plateau. Environ. Res. Lett., 5, 015101, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/015101.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, F., J. Xiao, and L. Yan, 2016: Precipitation pattern of Three-River source area in Qinghai from 1964 to 2014. Ganhan Diqu Nongye Yanjiu, 34, 282288, https://doi.org/10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2016.05.43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, S., D. Li, P. Zhao, and G. Zhang, 2009: The climatic characteristics of vapor transportation in rainy season of the origin area of three rivers in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Acta Meteor. Sin., 67, 591598, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2009.059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, X., and G. Zhang, 2003: Research on precipitable water and precipitation conversion efficiency around Tianshan mountain area. J. Desert Res., 23, 509513, http://dx.chinadoi.cn/10.3321/j.issn:1000-694X.2003.05.007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., L. Zhang, and B. Wang, 2020: Contributions of local and remote water vapor transport to precipitation variations over Songhua River Basin. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 611624, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2009.059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, H., J. Liu, and S. Li, 2005: Analysis of precipitable water vapor source distribution and its seasonal variation characteristics over Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. Ziran Ziyuan Xuebao, 28, 526534, https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-3037.2006.04.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, L., L. Li, C. Liu, and C. Lan, 2013: Climate change in the Tibetan Plateau three rivers source region: 1960–2009. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 29002916, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3642.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X., and Z. Yin, 2001: Spatial and temporal variation of summer precipitation over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 14, 28962909, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2896:SATVOS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, F., W. Li, H. Lv, Y. Yang, and Z. Lu, 2014: The example analysis of the transmission of surface meteorological observation data and the quality control. Anhui Nongye Kexue, 42, 75217525, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2014.22.078.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meng, X., H Chen, Z. Li, L Zhao, B. Zhou, S. Lv, M. Deng, Y. Liu, and G. Li, 2020: Review of climate change and its environmental influence on the Three-River regions. Plateau Meteor., 39, 1133–1143, https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2019.00144.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Qiang, A., N. Wang, J. Xie, and R. Jiang, 2019: Spatial-temporal characteristics and relations of precipitable water vapor with precipitation in the three rivers source region. J. Arid Meteor., 37, 2230, https://doi.org/CNKI:SUN:GSQX.0.2019-01-003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quan, C., B. Chen, T. Zhao, B. Zhou, and Y. Han, 2016: Application of Lagrange water vapor source diagnosis method to the Three River Source Area. J. Appl. Meteor., 27, 688697, https://doi.org/10.11898/1001-7313.20160605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, B., and H. Wang, 2018: Interannual variation of the spring and summer precipitation over the three river source region in China and the associated regimes. J. Climate, 31, 74417457, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0680.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, B., Y. Zhu, and H. Wang, 2011: The recent interdecadal and interannual variation of water vapor transport over eastern China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 10391048, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-010-0093-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, K. E., 2001: Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 71837192, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900719.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and X. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 1517–1536, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<1517:PEATHD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., Y. Huang, J. Tao, D. Li, and P. Wang, 2006: Regional features and variations of water vapor in Northwest China. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 28, 1521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, H., and F. Xue, 2003: Interannual variability of Somali jet and its influences on the inter-hemispheric water vapor transport and on the East Asian summer rainfall. Chin. J. Geophys., 46, 1825, https://doi.org/10.1002/cjg2.311.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, X., G. Pang, and M. Yang, 2018: Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau during recent decades: A review based on observations and simulations. Int. J. Climatol., 38, 11161131, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5246.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wei, F., 1999: Diagnostic and Predictive Technology in Modern Climatic Statistics. China Meteorological Press, 273 pp.

  • Wei, Y., F. Han, and W. Xie, 2015: Analysis on change characteristics of precipitation in the Three-River Headwaters Region in the past 53 years. Sci. Technol. Qinghai Agric. For., 2, 45–48, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1004-9967.2015.02.011.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, C., M. Li, and X. Zhang, 2014: Characteristics of summer atmospheric water resources and its causes over the Tibetan Plateau in recent 30 years. J. Nat. Res., 29, 979989, https://doi.org/10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.06.007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 25392558, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2539:GPAYMA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, X., Q. You, Y. Bao, and X. Meng, 2018: The connection between the precipitation and water vapor transport over Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in summer based on the multiple datasets. Plateau Meteor, 37, 78–92, https://dx.doi.org//10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00030.

  • Xu, K., L. Zhong, Y. Ma, and Z. Huang, 2020: A study on the water vapor transport trend and water vapor source of the Tibetan Plateau. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 140, 10311042, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-020-03142-2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, X., S. Tao, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. Zhou, and X. Wang, 2002: The relationship between water vapor transport features of Tibetan Plateau: Monsoon “Large Triangle” affecting region and drought-flood abnormality of China. Acta Meteor. Sin., 60, 257266, https://doi.org/10.11676/qxxb2002.032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, X., J. Liu, Q. Shao, and J. Fan, 2008: The dynamic changes of ecosystem spatial pattern and structure in the Three-River Headwaters Region in Qinghai Province during recent 30 years. Geogr. Res., 27, 829828, https://doi.org/10.11821/yj2008040011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, X., L. Dong, Y. Zhao, and Y. Wang, 2019a: Effect of the Asian Water Tower over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the characteristics of atmospheric water circulation. Chin. Sci. Bull., 64, 2830–2841, https://doi.org/CNKI:SUN:KXTB.0.2019-27-009.

  • Xu, X., Y. Ma, C. Sun, and F. Wei, 2019b: Effect of energy and water circulation over Tibetan Plateau. Bull. Chin. Acad. Sci., 34, 1293–1305, https://doi.org/CNKI:SUN:KYYX.0.2019-11-013.

  • Yan, H., J. Huang, Y. He, Y. Liu, T. Wang, and J. Li, 2020: Atmospheric water vapor budget and its long-term trend over the Tibetan Plateau. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 125, e2020JD033297, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033297.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, H., C. Cui, X. Wang, W. Zhang, and B. Wang, 2019: Research progresses of precipitation variation over the Yarlung Zangbo River basin under global climate warming. Torrential Rain Disaster, 38, 565575, https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1004-9045.2019.06.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, K., H. Wu, J. Qin, C. Lin, W. Tang, and Y. Chen, 2014: Recent climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and their impacts on energy and water cycle: A review. Global Planet. Change, 112, 7991, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.12.001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yi, X., G. Li, and Y. Yin, 2013: Spatio-temporal variation of precipitation in the Three-River Headwater Region from 1961 to 2010. J. Geogr. Sci., 23, 447464, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-013-1021-y.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, C., Q. Tang, and D. Chen, 2017: Recent changes in the moisture source of precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau. J. Climate, 30, 18071819, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0842.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., 2001: Relations of water vapor transport from Indian monsoon with that over East Asia and the summer rainfall in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 10051017, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03403519.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, W., L. Zhang, and T. Zhou, 2016: Interannual variability and the underlying mechanism of summer precipitation over the Yarlung Zangbo River basin. Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 965980, https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1512.15205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., T. Li, J. Li, and D. Zhong, 2019: Influence of the westerlies and the South Asia monsoon on water vapor transport and precipitation in the Three-River Headwaters Region during the rainy season. Adv. Water Sci., 30, 348358, https://doi.org/10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.2019.03.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, H., X. Zhao, Y. Tang, S. Gu, and L. Zhou, 2005: Alpine grassland degradation and its control in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, China. Grassl. Sci., 51, 191203, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-697X.2005.00028.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T., and Z. Li, 2002: Simulation of the East Asian summer monsoon by using a variable resolution atmospheric GCM. Climate Dyn., 19, 167180, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-001-0214-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T.-J., and R.-C. Yu, 2005: Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08104, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T.-J., J. Gao, Y. Zhao, L. Zhang, and W. Zhang, 2019: Water vapor transport processes on Asian Water Tower. Bull. Chin. Acad. Sci., 34, 12101219, https://doi.org/10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2019.11.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, L., R. Liu, X. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Wen, Y. Zhao, Y. Xie, and T. Zhang, 2019: The characteristics of the water vapor transport and associated sources under abnormal precipitation conditions in the source region of the Yellow River using FLEXPART. Plateau Meteor., 38, 484–496.

  • Zou, S., and H. Liu, 2002: Characteristics of average water vapor content and their influencing climate factors in China. Acta Geogr. Sin., 22, 18, https://doi.org/10.11821/xb198104004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 281 272 25
Full Text Views 73 70 9
PDF Downloads 90 83 17

The Characteristics of Water Vapor Transport and Its Linkage with Summer Precipitation over the Source Region of the Three Rivers

View More View Less
  • 1 aKey Laboratory of Plateau Atmosphere and Environment, Sichuan Province, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, China
  • | 2 bKey Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in the Cold and Arid Regions, Northwest Institute of Ecological Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China
Restricted access

Abstract

Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological factors affecting the water cycle and ecological system over the Source Region of the Three Rivers (SRTR), where the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lantsang River originate. The characteristics of annual and summer water vapor transport and budget over the SRTR are analyzed using monthly observational and reanalysis datasets during 1980–2019. The linkage between water vapor transport and summer precipitation is also explored in this study. The results show that the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are in agreement with the measured precipitation. The SRTR is a sink region for water vapor, where the water vapor content shows an increasing trend with a rate of 0.2 mm (10 yr)−1 annually and 0.3 mm (10 yr)−1 in the summer. The water vapor mainly flows into the SRTR from the lower (521.2 × 106 kg s−1) and the middle (195.7 × 106 kg s−1) layers of the southern boundary in summer, while it exports from the middle (208.1 × 106 kg s−1) layer of the eastern boundary. The abnormal wind convergence and the low pressure system, combined with the effects of the western Pacific subtropical high and the Mongolian high, provide conditions for the transport of water vapor and precipitation over the SRTR. A close relationship is found between water vapor flux and precipitation from the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis. The Brahmaputra River basin is the key region of water vapor transport over the SRTR, which contributes to further understanding the mechanisms of water vapor transport and the regional water cycle.

Significance Statement

Under the background of global warming, the Tibetan Plateau has an obvious trend of warming and humidification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of water vapor transport and its linkage with summer precipitation over Source Region of the Three Rivers, which is located in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. We found that the Brahmaputra River basin is the key region affecting the precipitation. These findings contribute to the understanding of the regional water cycle characteristics and the mechanism of the synergistic effect of westerly wind and monsoon on the change of “Water Tower of Asia.”

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Jun Wen, jwen@cuit.edu.cn

Abstract

Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological factors affecting the water cycle and ecological system over the Source Region of the Three Rivers (SRTR), where the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lantsang River originate. The characteristics of annual and summer water vapor transport and budget over the SRTR are analyzed using monthly observational and reanalysis datasets during 1980–2019. The linkage between water vapor transport and summer precipitation is also explored in this study. The results show that the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are in agreement with the measured precipitation. The SRTR is a sink region for water vapor, where the water vapor content shows an increasing trend with a rate of 0.2 mm (10 yr)−1 annually and 0.3 mm (10 yr)−1 in the summer. The water vapor mainly flows into the SRTR from the lower (521.2 × 106 kg s−1) and the middle (195.7 × 106 kg s−1) layers of the southern boundary in summer, while it exports from the middle (208.1 × 106 kg s−1) layer of the eastern boundary. The abnormal wind convergence and the low pressure system, combined with the effects of the western Pacific subtropical high and the Mongolian high, provide conditions for the transport of water vapor and precipitation over the SRTR. A close relationship is found between water vapor flux and precipitation from the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis. The Brahmaputra River basin is the key region of water vapor transport over the SRTR, which contributes to further understanding the mechanisms of water vapor transport and the regional water cycle.

Significance Statement

Under the background of global warming, the Tibetan Plateau has an obvious trend of warming and humidification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of water vapor transport and its linkage with summer precipitation over Source Region of the Three Rivers, which is located in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau. We found that the Brahmaputra River basin is the key region affecting the precipitation. These findings contribute to the understanding of the regional water cycle characteristics and the mechanism of the synergistic effect of westerly wind and monsoon on the change of “Water Tower of Asia.”

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Jun Wen, jwen@cuit.edu.cn
Save