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The Storage of Antecedent Precipitation and Air Temperature Signals in Soil Temperature over China

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  • 1 aCollaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters/Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
  • | 2 bSchool of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
  • | 3 cCMA-NJU Joint Laboratory for Climate Prediction Studies, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
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Abstract

Soil temperature (ST) is one of the key variables in land–atmosphere interactions. The response of ST to atmospheric changes and subsequent influence of ST on atmosphere can be recognized as the processes of signals propagation. Understanding the storing and releasing of atmospheric signals in ST favors the improvement of climate prediction and weather forecast. However, the current understanding of the lagging response of ST to atmospheric changes is very insufficient. The analysis based on observation shows that both the storage of air temperature signals in deep ST even after 4 months and the storage of precipitation signals in shallow ST after 1 month are widespread phenomena in China. Air temperature signals at 2 m can propagate to the soil depths of 160 and 320 cm after 1 and 2 months, respectively. The storages of antecedent air temperature and precipitation signals in ST are slightly weaker and stronger during April–September, respectively, which is related to more precipitation during growing season. The precipitation signals in ST rapidly weaken after 2 months. Moreover, the effects of accumulated precipitation and air temperature on the signal storage in ST have significant monthly variations and vary linearly with soil depth and latitude. The storage of antecedent air temperature or precipitation signals in ST exhibits an obvious decadal variation with a period of more than 50 years, and it may result from the modulation of the global climate patterns which largely affect local air temperature and precipitation.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Yaoming Song, songym@nuist.edu.cn; Anning Huang, anhuang@nju.edu.cn

Abstract

Soil temperature (ST) is one of the key variables in land–atmosphere interactions. The response of ST to atmospheric changes and subsequent influence of ST on atmosphere can be recognized as the processes of signals propagation. Understanding the storing and releasing of atmospheric signals in ST favors the improvement of climate prediction and weather forecast. However, the current understanding of the lagging response of ST to atmospheric changes is very insufficient. The analysis based on observation shows that both the storage of air temperature signals in deep ST even after 4 months and the storage of precipitation signals in shallow ST after 1 month are widespread phenomena in China. Air temperature signals at 2 m can propagate to the soil depths of 160 and 320 cm after 1 and 2 months, respectively. The storages of antecedent air temperature and precipitation signals in ST are slightly weaker and stronger during April–September, respectively, which is related to more precipitation during growing season. The precipitation signals in ST rapidly weaken after 2 months. Moreover, the effects of accumulated precipitation and air temperature on the signal storage in ST have significant monthly variations and vary linearly with soil depth and latitude. The storage of antecedent air temperature or precipitation signals in ST exhibits an obvious decadal variation with a period of more than 50 years, and it may result from the modulation of the global climate patterns which largely affect local air temperature and precipitation.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Yaoming Song, songym@nuist.edu.cn; Anning Huang, anhuang@nju.edu.cn

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