• Basara, J. B., , and Crawford T. M. , 2000: Improved installation procedures for deep layer soil moisture measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17 , 879884.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blake, G. R., , and Hartge K. H. , 1986: Bulk density. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Minerological Methods, A. Klute, Ed., American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, 363–375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brock, F. V., , Crawford K. C. , , Elliott R. L. , , Cuperus G. W. , , Stadler S. J. , , Johnson H. L. , , and Eilts M. D. , 1995: The Oklahoma Mesonet: A technical overview. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12 , 519.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elliott, R. L., , and Brown G. O. , 1998: Soils Data for the ARM/CART Southern Great Plains Site. Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, CD-ROM.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, W. H., 1986: Water content. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Minerological Methods, A. Klute, Ed., American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, 493–544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hillel, E., 1982: Introduction to Soil Physics. Academic Press, 364 pp.

  • Hollinger, S. E., , and Isard S. A. , 1994: A soil moisture climatology of Illinois. J. Climate, 7 , 822833.

  • Klute, A., 1986: Water retention: Laboratory methods. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Minerological Methods, A. Klute, Ed., American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, 635–662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pal, J. S., , and Eltahir E. A. B. , 2001: Pathways relating soil moisture conditions to future summer rainfall within a model of the land–atmosphere system. J. Climate, 14 , 12271242.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reece, C. F., 1996: Evaluation of a line heat dissipation sensor for measuring soil matric potential. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 60 , 10221028.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, J. M., , and Hubbard K. G. , 1990: Soil water assessment model for several crops in the High Plains. Agron. J., 82 , 11411148.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rossel, F. E., , and Garbrecht J. D. , 1999: Variability characteristics of monthly precipitation in central Oklahoma. J. Amer. Water Resour. Assoc., 35 , 14551461.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starks, P. J., , and Jackson T. J. , 2001: Remote sensing and estimation of root zone water content. Remote Sensing and Hydrology 2000, M. Owe et al., Eds., IAHS Publ. 267, 409–411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starks, P. J., , Garbrecht J. , , and Schiebe F. R. , 1996: Establishment and missions of the Little Washita River Research Watershed. Proc. 16th Annual American Geophysical Union Hydrology Days, Fort Collins, CO, Hydrology Days Publications, 479–486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starks, P. J., , Jackson T. J. , , Crosson W. L. , , and Meyers T. , 1999: Automated soil water content estimates from soil heat dissipation sensors. Proc. 14th Conf. on Hydrology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 157–159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stokes, G. M., , and Schwartz S. E. , 1994: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75 , 12011221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Genuchten, M. T., 1980: A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 44 , 892898.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Genuchten, M. T., , Leijand F. J. , , and Yates S. R. , 1991: The RETC code for quantifying the hydraulic functions of unsaturated soils. Tech. Rep. EPA/600/2-91/065, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 85 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Meteorological Organization, 1992: Scientific plan for the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP). WMO Tech. Doc. WMO/TD-No. 461, 65 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 193 193 4
PDF Downloads 37 37 1

Spatiotemporal Variations in Soil Water: First Results from the ARM SGP CART Network

View More View Less
  • 1 USDA ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, Oklahoma
  • | 2 USDA ARS Jamie Whitten Delta States Research Center, Stoneville, Mississippi
  • | 3 Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma
  • | 4 Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

A network of automated soil water and temperature systems, installed at 21 locations in Oklahoma and Kansas in 1996 and 1997, is providing hourly profiles of soil temperature and water at eight depths, from 0.05 to 1.75 m below the surface, in twin profiles 1 m apart. Dubbed the Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS), these systems are an addition to the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Average spacing between SWATS systems is about 75 km. The SWATS network is one of three overlapping soil water networks in the region but is unique in depth of deployment, providing observations of available soil water through most of the rooting zone of SGP pastures and prairies. A description of the SWATS sensor and network, calibration and data verification, and example time series from the first 3 yr of operation are presented. Perusal of the time series reveals systematic spatial and seasonal variations in soil water profile characteristics. These spatiotemporal variations are interpreted as the integrated response in varying soils to antecedent soil water and recent precipitation, under varying mixes of vegetation determined by climatic gradients in precipitation, with impacts from local pasture management.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. M. Schneider, USDA ARS, 7202 W. Cheyenne St., El Reno, OK 73036. Email: schneide@grl.ars.usda.gov

Abstract

A network of automated soil water and temperature systems, installed at 21 locations in Oklahoma and Kansas in 1996 and 1997, is providing hourly profiles of soil temperature and water at eight depths, from 0.05 to 1.75 m below the surface, in twin profiles 1 m apart. Dubbed the Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS), these systems are an addition to the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. Average spacing between SWATS systems is about 75 km. The SWATS network is one of three overlapping soil water networks in the region but is unique in depth of deployment, providing observations of available soil water through most of the rooting zone of SGP pastures and prairies. A description of the SWATS sensor and network, calibration and data verification, and example time series from the first 3 yr of operation are presented. Perusal of the time series reveals systematic spatial and seasonal variations in soil water profile characteristics. These spatiotemporal variations are interpreted as the integrated response in varying soils to antecedent soil water and recent precipitation, under varying mixes of vegetation determined by climatic gradients in precipitation, with impacts from local pasture management.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. M. Schneider, USDA ARS, 7202 W. Cheyenne St., El Reno, OK 73036. Email: schneide@grl.ars.usda.gov

Save