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Daily Rainfall for the Indian Monsoon Region from Merged Satellite and Rain Gauge Values: Large-Scale Analysis from Real-Time Data

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  • 1 National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, New Delhi, India
  • | 2 Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida
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Abstract

A system for objectively producing daily large-scale analysis of rainfall for the Indian region has been developed and tested by using only available real-time rain gauge data and quantitative precipitation estimates from INSAT-1D IR data. The system uses a successive correction method to produce the analysis on a regular latitude–longitude grid. Quantitative precipitation estimates from the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) operational geostationary satellite, INSAT-1D, IR data are used as the initial guess in the objective analysis method. Accumulated 24-h (daily) rainfall analyses are prepared each day by merging satellite and rain gauge data. The characteristics of the output from this analysis system have been examined by comparing the accumulated monthly observed rainfall with other available independent widely used datasets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) analyses. The monthly data prepared from the daily analyses are also compared with the subjectively analyzed India Meteorological Department (IMD) monthly rainfall maps. This comparison suggests that even with only the available real-time data from INSAT and rain gauge, it is possible to construct a usable large-scale rainfall map on regular latitude–longitude grids. This analysis, which uses a higher resolution and more local rain gauge data, is able to produce realistic details of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall patterns. The magnitude and distribution of orographic rainfall near the west coast of India is very different from and more realistic compared to both the GPCP and CMAP patterns. Due to the higher spatial resolution of the analysis system, the regions of heavy and light rain are demarcated clearly over the Indian landmass. Over the oceanic regions of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the equatorial Indian Ocean, the agreement of the analyzed rainfall at the monthly timescale is quite good compared to the other two datasets. For NWP and other model verification of large-scale rainfall, this dataset will be useful. In the field of rainfall monitoring within weather and climate research, this technique will have real-time applications with data from current (METSAT) and future (INSAT-3A and INSAT-3D) Indian geostationary satellites.

Current affiliation: Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

Corresponding author address: Dr. A. K. Mitra, Visiting Research Associate, Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Email: akmitra@earl.met.fsu.edu

Abstract

A system for objectively producing daily large-scale analysis of rainfall for the Indian region has been developed and tested by using only available real-time rain gauge data and quantitative precipitation estimates from INSAT-1D IR data. The system uses a successive correction method to produce the analysis on a regular latitude–longitude grid. Quantitative precipitation estimates from the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) operational geostationary satellite, INSAT-1D, IR data are used as the initial guess in the objective analysis method. Accumulated 24-h (daily) rainfall analyses are prepared each day by merging satellite and rain gauge data. The characteristics of the output from this analysis system have been examined by comparing the accumulated monthly observed rainfall with other available independent widely used datasets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) analyses. The monthly data prepared from the daily analyses are also compared with the subjectively analyzed India Meteorological Department (IMD) monthly rainfall maps. This comparison suggests that even with only the available real-time data from INSAT and rain gauge, it is possible to construct a usable large-scale rainfall map on regular latitude–longitude grids. This analysis, which uses a higher resolution and more local rain gauge data, is able to produce realistic details of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall patterns. The magnitude and distribution of orographic rainfall near the west coast of India is very different from and more realistic compared to both the GPCP and CMAP patterns. Due to the higher spatial resolution of the analysis system, the regions of heavy and light rain are demarcated clearly over the Indian landmass. Over the oceanic regions of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the equatorial Indian Ocean, the agreement of the analyzed rainfall at the monthly timescale is quite good compared to the other two datasets. For NWP and other model verification of large-scale rainfall, this dataset will be useful. In the field of rainfall monitoring within weather and climate research, this technique will have real-time applications with data from current (METSAT) and future (INSAT-3A and INSAT-3D) Indian geostationary satellites.

Current affiliation: Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

Corresponding author address: Dr. A. K. Mitra, Visiting Research Associate, Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Email: akmitra@earl.met.fsu.edu

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