A Proposed Structure for Coupling Tiled Surfaces with the Planetary Boundary Layer

M. J. Best Met Office, and Joint Centre for Hydro-Meteorological Research, Wallingford, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by M. J. Best in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A. Beljaars European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by A. Beljaars in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
J. Polcher Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL CNRS, Paris, France

Search for other papers by J. Polcher in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
P. Viterbo European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom

Search for other papers by P. Viterbo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

A generalized coupling is proposed between atmospheric models and surface schemes (land and ocean). A set of input and output variables is defined for this purpose in such a way that it can be used by many current and future models, including mosaic or tile schemes. The basic concept is to pass atmospheric variables from the lowest model level and their relation to corresponding fluxes to the surface scheme. The surface scheme returns the fluxes. In this framework, there is no need for the atmospheric model to have detailed information about the surface. Only the result of the surface computations is needed; namely, the fluxes, which are applied as a boundary condition. The equations for fully implicit coupling are derived, and the relevance for numerical stability is demonstrated. It is also shown that fully implicit coupling in a tile scheme leads to more robust results than partially implicit coupling.

Corresponding author address: Anton Beljaars, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, United Kingdom. Email: anton.beljaars@ecmwf.int

Abstract

A generalized coupling is proposed between atmospheric models and surface schemes (land and ocean). A set of input and output variables is defined for this purpose in such a way that it can be used by many current and future models, including mosaic or tile schemes. The basic concept is to pass atmospheric variables from the lowest model level and their relation to corresponding fluxes to the surface scheme. The surface scheme returns the fluxes. In this framework, there is no need for the atmospheric model to have detailed information about the surface. Only the result of the surface computations is needed; namely, the fluxes, which are applied as a boundary condition. The equations for fully implicit coupling are derived, and the relevance for numerical stability is demonstrated. It is also shown that fully implicit coupling in a tile scheme leads to more robust results than partially implicit coupling.

Corresponding author address: Anton Beljaars, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, United Kingdom. Email: anton.beljaars@ecmwf.int

Save
  • Beljaars, A. C. M., 1992: Numerical schemes for parametrizations. Proc. Seminar on Numerical Methods in Atmospheric Models, Vol. II, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 1–42.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beljaars, A. C. M., 1999: Air–sea interaction in the ECMWF model. Proc. Seminar on Atmosphere–Surface Interaction, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 33–52.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beljaars, A. C. M., and Viterbo P. , 1998: The role of the boundary layer in a numerical weather prediction model. Clear and Cloudy Boundary Layers, A. A. M. Holtslag and P. Duynkerke, Eds., Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 287–304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beljaars, A. C. M., Brown A. R. , and Wood N. , 2004: A new parametrization of turbulent orographic form drag. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 130 , 13271347.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claussen, M., 1995: Flux aggregation at large scales: On the limits of validity of the concept of blending height. J. Hydrol, 166 , 371382.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doran, J. C., and Zhong S. , 2002: Comments on “Atmospheric disturbance caused by human modification of the landscape.”. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 83 , 277279.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ducoudré, N., Laval K. , and Perrier A. , 1993: SECHIBA, a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land/ atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general circulation model. J. Climate, 6 , 248273.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Essery, R. L. H., Best M. J. , Betts R. A. , Cox P. M. , and Taylor C. M. , 2003: Explicit representation of subgrid heterogeneity in a GGM land surface scheme. J. Hydrometeor, 4 , 530543.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hewer, F., and Wood N. , 1998: The effective roughness length for scalar transfer in neutral conditions over hilly terrain. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 124 , 659685.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janssen, P. A. E. M., Saetra O. , Wettre C. , Bidlot J. , and Beljaars A. C. M. , 2003: Impact of sea state on atmosphere and ocean. Proc. Workshop on the Role of the Upper Ocean in Medium and Extended Range Forecasting, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 143–157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. W., 1999: First- and second-order conservative remapping schemes for grids in spherical coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev, 127 , 22042210.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Kanamitsu M. , 1988: Time schemes for strongly nonlinear damping equations. Mon. Wea. Rev, 116 , 19451958.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koster, R. D., and Suarez M. , 1992: Modeling the land surface boundary in climate models as a composite of independent vegetation stands. J. Geophys. Res, 97 , 26972715.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, P. J., 1985: On the parametrization of orographic drag. Proc. Seminar on Physical Parametrization for Numerical Models of the Atmosphere, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 139–165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milly, P. C. D., 1992: Potential evaporation and soil moisture in general circulation models. J. Climate, 5 , 209226.

  • Polcher, J., and Coauthors, 1998: A proposal for a general interface between land-surface schemes and general circulation models. Global Planet. Change, 19 , 263278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, J-P., Dümenil L. , and Polcher J. , 2001: On the land surface– atmosphere coupling and its impact in a single-column atmospheric model. J. Appl. Meteor, 40 , 642663.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, P. A., Sykes R. I. , and Mason P. J. , 1989: On the parameterization of drag over small-scale topography in neutrally-stratified boundary-layer flow. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 48 , 408422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Troen, I., and Mahrt L. , 1986: A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer: Sensitivity to surface evaporation. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 37 , 129148.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van den Hurk, B. J. J. M., Viterbo P. , Beljaars A. C. M. , and Betts A. K. , 2000: Offline validation of the ERA40 surface scheme. ECMWF Tech. Memo. 295, 42 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Viterbo, P., and Beljaars A. C. M. , 1995: An improved land surface parameterization scheme in the ECMWF model and its validation. J. Climate, 8 , 27162748.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Viterbo, P., Beljaars A. C. M. , Mahfouf J-F. , and Teixeira J. , 1999: The representation of soil moisture freezing and its impact on the stable boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 125 , 24012426.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood, N., Brown A. R. , and Hewer F. E. , 2001: Parametrizing the effects of orography on the boundary layer: An alternative to effective roughness lengths. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 127 , 759778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 916 340 15
PDF Downloads 540 167 16