• Bao, J-W., , Michelson S. A. , , and Wilczak J. M. , 2002: Sensitivity of numerical simulations to parameterizations of roughness for surface heat fluxes at high winds over the sea. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 19261932.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blanken, P. D., and Coauthors, 2000: Eddy covariance measurements of evaporation from Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. Water Resour. Res., 36 , 10691077.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blanken, P. D., , Rouse W. R. , , and Schertzer W. M. , 2003: Enhancement of evaporation from a large northern lake by the entrainment of warm, dry air. J. Hydrometeor., 4 , 680693.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brutsaert, W., 1982: Evaporation into the Atmosphere. D. Reidel–Kluwer, 299 pp.

  • Busch, N. E., 1973: On the mechanics of atmospheric turbulence. Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–65.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Businger, J. A., , Wyngaard J. C. , , Izumi Y. , , and Bradley E. F. , 1971: Flux profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 181189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cao, Z., , and Ma J. , 2005: An application of the variational method to computation of sensible heat flux over a deciduous forest. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 144152.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cao, Z., , Wang M. , , Proctor B. A. , , Strong G. S. , , Stewart R. E. , , Ritchie H. , , and Burford J. E. , 2002: On the physical processes associated with the water budget and discharge of the Mackenzie Basin during the 1994/95 water year. Atmos.–Ocean, 40 , 125143.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 639640.

  • Daley, R., 1996: Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.

  • Garratt, J. R., 1994: The Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Cambridge University Press, 316 pp.

  • Geernaert, G. L., , and Larsen S. E. , 1998: Air–sea interaction in the coastal zone. The Sea: Ideas and Observations on Progress in the Study of the Seas, K. H. Brink and A. R. Robinson, Eds., Wiley, 89–112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, J., , and Daggupaty S. M. , 2000: Using all observed information in a variational approach to measuring z0m and z0t. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 13911401.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poulos, G. S., , and Burns S. P. , 2003: An evaluation of bulk Ri-based surface layer flux formulas for stable and very stable conditions with intermittent turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 25232527.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rouse, W. R., , Oswald C. M. , , Binyamin J. , , Blanken P. D. , , Schertzer W. M. , , and Spence C. , 2003: Interannual and seasonal variability of the surface energy balance and temperature of central Great Slave Lake. J. Hydrometeor., 4 , 720730.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, S. D., 1988: Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux, and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 93 , 1546715472.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Q., , and Qiu C. J. , 1997: A variational method for computing surface heat fluxes from ARM surface energy and radiation balance systems. J. Appl. Meteor., 36 , 311.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yaglom, A. M., 1977: Comments on wind and temperature flux-profile relationships. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 11 , 89102.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 26 26 7
PDF Downloads 21 21 6

Improving Computation of Sensible Heat Flux over a Water Surface Using the Variational Method

View More View Less
  • 1 Meteorological Service of Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
  • | 2 Meteorological Service of Canada, Downsview, Ontario, Canada
  • | 3 School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

In this study, the authors have performed the variational computations for surface sensible heat fluxes over a large northern lake using observed wind, temperature gradient, and moisture gradient. In contrast with the conventional (Monin–Obukhov similarity theory) MOST-based flux-gradient method, the variational approach sufficiently utilizes observational meteorological conditions over the lake, where the conventional flux-gradient method performs poorly. Verifications using direct eddy-correlation measurements over Great Slave Lake, the fifth largest lake in North America in terms of surface area, during the open water period of 1999 demonstrate that the variational method yields good agreements between the computed and the measured sensible heat fluxes. It is also demonstrated that the variational method is more accurate than the flux-gradient method in computations of sensible heat flux across the air–water interface.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Zuohao Cao, Environment Canada, Meteorological Service of Canada, National Research Laboratory for Nowcasting and Remote Sensing, 4905 Dufferin Street, Downsview, ON M3H 5T4, Canada. Email: zuohao.cao@ec.gc.ca

Abstract

In this study, the authors have performed the variational computations for surface sensible heat fluxes over a large northern lake using observed wind, temperature gradient, and moisture gradient. In contrast with the conventional (Monin–Obukhov similarity theory) MOST-based flux-gradient method, the variational approach sufficiently utilizes observational meteorological conditions over the lake, where the conventional flux-gradient method performs poorly. Verifications using direct eddy-correlation measurements over Great Slave Lake, the fifth largest lake in North America in terms of surface area, during the open water period of 1999 demonstrate that the variational method yields good agreements between the computed and the measured sensible heat fluxes. It is also demonstrated that the variational method is more accurate than the flux-gradient method in computations of sensible heat flux across the air–water interface.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Zuohao Cao, Environment Canada, Meteorological Service of Canada, National Research Laboratory for Nowcasting and Remote Sensing, 4905 Dufferin Street, Downsview, ON M3H 5T4, Canada. Email: zuohao.cao@ec.gc.ca

Save