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Hydrostatic Temperature Calculations

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  • 1 Department of Meteorology, The University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706
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Abstract

Comparisons are made between hydrostatically computed temperatures and ambient temperatures associated with nine different data sources, including analyses, forecasts and conventional observations. Five-day averages and the day-to-day variations in the root-mean-square temperature differences are presented. Several different numerical and interpolation procedures are examined. Error correction and a constrained optimum procedure that minimizes ambient minus calculated hydrostatic temperature differences are introduced.

Systematic differences between ambient and hydrostatic temperatures are found to be associated with the synoptic situation. When compared with ambient temperatures, hydrostatic temperatures at 500 mb tend to he too warm at or in front of a trough and too cold behind the trough. In the vertical direction, for the eight-level configuration tested, the average hydrostatic temperatures are too cold at low levels (850, 700 mb) and too warm at upper levels, (300, 250 mb).

Abstract

Comparisons are made between hydrostatically computed temperatures and ambient temperatures associated with nine different data sources, including analyses, forecasts and conventional observations. Five-day averages and the day-to-day variations in the root-mean-square temperature differences are presented. Several different numerical and interpolation procedures are examined. Error correction and a constrained optimum procedure that minimizes ambient minus calculated hydrostatic temperature differences are introduced.

Systematic differences between ambient and hydrostatic temperatures are found to be associated with the synoptic situation. When compared with ambient temperatures, hydrostatic temperatures at 500 mb tend to he too warm at or in front of a trough and too cold behind the trough. In the vertical direction, for the eight-level configuration tested, the average hydrostatic temperatures are too cold at low levels (850, 700 mb) and too warm at upper levels, (300, 250 mb).

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