• Bell, G. D., and L. F., Bosart, 1988: Appalachian cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 137–161.

  • Blackadar, A. K., 1957: Boundary layer wind maxima and their significance for the growth of nocturnal inversions. Bull Amer. Meteor. Soc.,38, 283–290.

  • Chen, S., and A. Schumann, 1990: Taiwan area experiment conventional data user’s guide. NCAR Tech. Note. NCAR/TN-349+1A, 219 pp.

  • Chen, T. G.-J., 1985: Feasibility study of “A severe regional precipitation observation and analysis experiment.” Natl. Sci. Counc., Sci. and Tech. of Disaster Prevention Program, Tech. Rep., 74–42, 32 pp. (In Chinese with English abstract).

  • ——, and C.-C. Yu, 1988: Study of low-level jet and extremely heavy rainfall over northern Taiwan in the Mei-Yu season. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 884–891.

  • Chen, X. A., and Y.-L. Chen, 1995: Development of low-level jets during TAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1695–1719.

  • Chen, Y.-L., and N. B.-F. Hui, 1990: Analysis of a shallow front during the Taiwan area mesoscale experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 2649–2667.

  • ——, and ——, 1992: Analysis of a relatively dry front during the Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 2442–2468.

  • ——, and J. Li, 1995a: Characteristics of surface pressure and wind patterns over the island of Taiwan during TAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 691–716.

  • ——, and ——, 1995b: Large-scale conditions for the development of heavy precipitation during TAMEX IOP 3. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2978–3002.

  • Cunning, J. B., 1988: Taiwan area mesoscale experiment: Daily operations summary, NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-305+STR.

  • Doyle, J. D., and T. T. Waner, 1991: A Carolina coastal low-level jet during GALE IOP 2. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2414–2428.

  • Drazin, P. G., 1961: On the steady flow of a fluid of variable density past an obstacle. Tellus,13, 239–251.

  • Forbes, G. S., R. A. Anthes, and D. W. Thomson, 1987: Synoptic and mesoscale aspects of an Appalachian ice storm associated with cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 564–591.

  • Helfand, H. M., and S. D. Schubert, 1995: Climatology of the simulated Great Plains low-level jet and its contribution to the continental moisture budget of the United States. J. Climate,8, 784–806.

  • Higgins, R. W., Y. Yao, E. S. Yarosh, J. E. Janowiak, and K. C. Mo, 1997: Influence of the Great Plains low-level jet on summertime precipitation and moisture transport over the central United States. J. Climate,10, 481–507.

  • Kuo, Y.-H., and G. T.-J. Chen, 1990: The Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment: An overview. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,71, 488–503.

  • Li, J., Y.-L. Chen, and W.-C Lee, 1997: Analysis of a heavy rainfall event during TAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 1060–1082.

  • Miranda, P. M. A., and I. N. James, 1992: Non-linear three-dimensional effects on gravity–wave drag: Splitting flow and breaking waves. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,118, 1057–1081.

  • Overland, J. E., and B. A. Walter Jr., 1981: Gap winds in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 2221–2233.

  • ——, and N. A. Bond, 1993: The influence of coastal topography: The Yakutat storm. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 1388–1397.

  • ——, and ——, 1995: Observations and scale analysis of coastal wind jet. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2934–2941.

  • Parish, T. R., 1982: Barrier winds along the Sierra Nevada. J. Appl. Meteor.,21, 925–930.

  • Pierrehumbert, R. T., and B. Wyman, 1985: Upstream effect of mountains. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 977–1003.

  • Schär, C., and R. B. Smith, 1993: Shallow-water flow past isolated topography. Part I: vorticity production and wake formation. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 1373–1400.

  • Schwerdtfeger, W., 1975: Mountain barrier effect of the flow of stable air north of the Brooks Range. 24th Conf. on Climate of the Arctic, Fairbanks, AK, 204–208.

  • Smith, R. B., 1979: The influence of mountains on the atmosphere. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 31, Academic Press, 1–41.

  • ——, 1980: Linear theory of stratified hydrostatic flow past an isolated mountain. Tellus,32, 348–364.

  • ——, 1982: Synoptic observations and theory of orographically disturbed wind and pressure. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 348–364.

  • ——, 1988: Linear theory of hydrostatic flow over an isolated mountain in isosteric coordinates. J. Amos. Sci.,45, 3889–3896.

  • ——, 1989: Mountain-induced stagnation points in hydrostatic flow. Tellus,41A, 270–274.

  • Smolarkiewicz, P. R., and R. Rotunno, 1990: Low Froude number flow past three-dimensional obstacle. Part II: Upwind flow reversed zone. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 1498–1511.

  • ——, R. M. Rasmussen, and T. L. Clack, 1988: On the dynamics of Hawaiian cloud bands: Island forcing. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1872–1905.

  • Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 666 pp.

  • Sun, W.-Y., and J. D. Chern, 1993: Diurnal variation of lee vortices in Taiwan and surrounding area. J. Amos. Sci.,50, 3404–3430.

  • ——, ——, C.-C. Wu, and W.-R. Hsu, 1991: Numerical simulation of mesoscale circulation in Taiwan and surrounding area. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2558–2573.

  • Trüb, J. and H. C. Davies, 1995: Flow over a mesoscale ridge: Pathways to regime transition. Tellus,47A, 502–524.

  • Wang, S.-T., 1986: Observational analysis of the interaction between fronts and the orography in Taiwan during the late winter monsoon season. Int. Conf. on Monsoon and Mesoscale Meteorology, Taipei, Taiwan, 123–135.

  • Xu, Q., 1990: A theoretical study of cold air damming. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 2969–2985.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 102 102 11
PDF Downloads 74 74 14

Barrier Jets during TAMEX

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

A barrier jet is frequently found along the northwestern coast of Taiwan in the prefrontal southwesterly flow regime during the Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment (TAMEX). It has a maximum wind speed of 14 m s−1 at approximately 1 km above the surface with a vertical wind shear approximately 10 × 10−3 s−1 below and 4 × 10−3 s−1 above that altitude. During TAMEX, the southwesterly monsoon flow strengthens over Taiwan when the low-level pressure trough/surface front moves toward the southeastern China coast. The barrier jet is a result of the stably stratified airflow past an island obstacle under a small–Froude number [<O(1)] flow regime. During the occurrence of a barrier jet, a windward pressure ridge is observed along the southwestern coast due to island blocking. In low levels, the incoming southwesterly flow decelerates off the southwestern coast and moves around the island. Along the western coast, the deflected airflow accelerates northward with a large cross-contour wind component down the pressure gradient along the western coast, resulting in a barrier jet over northwestern Taiwan. The barrier jet is the strongest when the surface windward ridge–leeside trough pressure pattern is most significant and weakens after a surface front arrives.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Yi-Leng Chen, Department of Meteorology, SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822.

Abstract

A barrier jet is frequently found along the northwestern coast of Taiwan in the prefrontal southwesterly flow regime during the Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment (TAMEX). It has a maximum wind speed of 14 m s−1 at approximately 1 km above the surface with a vertical wind shear approximately 10 × 10−3 s−1 below and 4 × 10−3 s−1 above that altitude. During TAMEX, the southwesterly monsoon flow strengthens over Taiwan when the low-level pressure trough/surface front moves toward the southeastern China coast. The barrier jet is a result of the stably stratified airflow past an island obstacle under a small–Froude number [<O(1)] flow regime. During the occurrence of a barrier jet, a windward pressure ridge is observed along the southwestern coast due to island blocking. In low levels, the incoming southwesterly flow decelerates off the southwestern coast and moves around the island. Along the western coast, the deflected airflow accelerates northward with a large cross-contour wind component down the pressure gradient along the western coast, resulting in a barrier jet over northwestern Taiwan. The barrier jet is the strongest when the surface windward ridge–leeside trough pressure pattern is most significant and weakens after a surface front arrives.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Yi-Leng Chen, Department of Meteorology, SOEST, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822.

Save