• Alpers, W. R., and B. Brümmer, 1994: Atmospheric boundary layer rolls observed by the synthetic aperture radar aboard the ERS-1 satellite. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 12 613–12 621.

  • ——, D. B. Ross, and C. L. Rufenach, 1981: On the detectability of ocean surface waves by real and synthetic aperture radar. J. Geophys. Res.,86, 6481–6498.

  • ——, U. Pahl, and G. Gross, 1998: Katabatic wind fields in coastal areas studied by ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery and numerical modeling. J. Geophys. Res.,103, 7875–7886.

  • Arrit, R. W., 1993: Effects of large-scale flow on characteristic features of the sea breeze. J. Appl. Meteor.,32, 116–125.

  • Atkinson, B. W., 1981: Meso-scale Atmospheric Circulations. Academic Press, 495 pp.

  • Atlas, D., 1994: Footprints of storms on the sea: A view from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 7961–7969.

  • ——, and P. G. Black, 1994: The evolution of convective storms from their footprints on the sea seen by synthetic aperture radar. Science,266, 1364–1366.

  • ——, T. Iguchi, and H. F. Pierce, 1995: Storm-induced wind patterns on the sea from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,76, 1585–1592.

  • Beal, R. C., P. S. DeLeonibus, and I. Katz, Eds., 1981: Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar for Oceanography. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 215 pp.

  • Chiba, O., 1993: The turbulent characteristics in the lowest part of the sea breeze front in the atmospheric surface layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,65, 181–195.

  • Estoque, M. A., 1962: The sea breeze as a function of prevailing synoptic flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,19, 244–250.

  • Fritsch, J. M., and R. Vislocky, 1996: Enhanced depiction of surface weather features. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 491–506.

  • Gasparovic, R. F., J. R. Apel, and E. S. Kasischke, 1988: Overview of the SAR Internal Wave Signature Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 12 304–12 316.

  • Gerling, T. W., 1986: Structure of the surface wind field from the SEASAT SAR. J. Geophys. Res.,91, 2308–2320.

  • Hjelmfelt, M. R., and R. R. Braham Jr., 1983: Numerical simulation of the airflow over Lake Michigan for a major lake-effect snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 205–219.

  • Iguchi, T., D. Atlas, K. Okamoto, and A. Sumi, 1995: Footprints of storms on the sea in the ERS-1 SAR image. IECIE Trans. Commun.,E78-B, 1580–1584.

  • Johannessen, J. A., R. A. Shuchman, O. M. Johannessen, K. L. Davidson, and D. R. Lyzenga, 1991: Synthetic aperture radar imaging of upper ocean circulation features and wind fronts. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 10 411–10 422.

  • Kalmykov, A. I., A. P. Pichugin, V. N. Tsymbal, and V. P. Shestopalov, 1985: Radio-physical observations from space of intermediate-scale formations on the surface of the ocean. Sov. Phys. Dok.,29, 1016–1017.

  • Korsbakken, E., J. A. Johannessen, and O. M. Johannessen, 1998: Coastal wind field retrievals from ERS synthetic aperture radar. J. Geophys. Res.,103, 7857–7874.

  • Kristovich, D. A. R., and Coauthors, 2000: The Lake-Induced Convection Experiment and the Snowband Dynamics Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,81, 519–542.

  • Lehner, S., J. Horstmann, W. Koch, and W. Rosenthal, 1998: Mesoscale wind measurements using recalibrated ERS SAR images. J. Geophys. Res.,103, 7847–7856.

  • Lenschow, D. H., 1973: Two examples of planetary boundary layer modification over the Great Lakes. J. Atmos. Sci.,30, 568–581.

  • Leshkovich, G. A., D. J. Schwab, and G. C. Muhr, 1993: Satellite environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes: A review of NOAA’s Great Lakes CoastWatch Program. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens.,59, 371–379.

  • Meyer, J. H., 1971: Radar observations of land breeze fronts. J. Appl. Meteor.,10, 1224–1232.

  • Mitnik, L. M., 1992: Mesoscale coherent structures in the surface wind field during cold air outbreaks over the Far Eastern seas from the satellite side looking radar. La Mer,30, 287–296.

  • Mourad, P. D., 1996: Inferring multiscale structure in atmospheric turbulence using satellite-based synthetic aperture radar imagery. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 18 433–18 449.

  • ——, 1999: Footprints of atmospheric turbulence in synthetic aperture radar images of the ocean surface—A review. Air–Sea Exchange: Physics, Chemistry, Dynamics, and Statistics, G. L. Geernaert, Ed., Kluwer Academic, 269–290.

  • ——, and B. A. Walter, 1996: Viewing a cold air outbreak using satellite-based synthetic aperture radar and advanced very high resolution radiometer imagery. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 16 391–16 400.

  • Müller, G., B. Brümmer, and W. Alpers, 1999: Roll convection within an Arctic cold-air outbreak: Interpretation of in situ aircraft measurements and spaceborne SAR imagery by a three-dimensional atmospheric model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,127, 363–380.

  • Nicosia, D. J., and Coauthors, 1999: A flash flood from a lake-enhanced rainband. Wea. Forecasting,14, 271–288.

  • Nilsson, C. S., and P. C. Tildesley, 1995: Imaging of oceanic features by ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 953–967.

  • Pan, F., and R. B. Smith, 1999: Gap winds and wakes: SAR observations and numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci.,56, 905–923.

  • Passarelli, R. E., Jr., and R. R. Braham, 1981: The role of the winter land breeze in the formation of Great Lakes snowstorms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,62, 482–491.

  • Petterson, S., and P. A. Calabrese, 1959: On some weather influences due to warming of the air by the Great Lakes in winter. J. Meteor.,16, 646–652.

  • Pielke, R. A., 1984: Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling. Academic Press, 612 pp.

  • Sikora, T. D., G. S. Young, R. C. Beal, and J. B. Edson, 1995: Use of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery of the sea surface in detecting the presence and structure of the convective marine atmospheric boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 3623–3632.

  • ——, ——, H. N. Shirer, and R. D. Chapman, 1997: Estimating convective atmospheric boundary layer depth from microwave radar imagery of the sea surface. J. Appl. Meteor.,36, 833–845.

  • Simpson, J. E., 1987: Gravity Currents in the Environment and the Laboratory. Wiley and Sons, 244 pp.

  • Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.

  • Thompson, D. R., and J. R. Jensen, 1993: Synthetic aperture radar interferometry applied to ship-generated internal waves in the 1989 Loch Linnhe experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 10 259–10 269.

  • Vachon, P. W., O. M. Johannessen, and J. A. Johannessen, 1994: An ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar image of atmospheric lee waves. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 22 483–22 490.

  • ——, I. Chunchuzov, and F. W. Dobson, 1998: Wind field structure and speed from RADARSAT SAR images. Earth Obs. Quart.,59, 12–15.

  • Velichko, S. A., A. I. Kalmykov, Y. A. Sinitsyn, V. N. Tsymbal, and V. P. Shestopalov, 1989: Radar studies of intermediate-scale interactions of the ocean and atmosphere from aerospace carriers. Sov. Phys. Dok.,34, 1343–1352.

  • Vesecky, J. F., and R. H. Stewart, 1982: Observation of ocean surface phenomena using imagery from the Seasat synthetic aperture radar: An assessment. J. Geophys. Res.,87, 3397–3430.

  • Weiss, C. C., and P. J. Sousounis, 1999: A climatology of collective lake disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev.,127, 565–574.

  • Winstead, N. S., and G. S. Young, 2000: An analysis of exit-flow drainage jets over Chesapeake Bay. J. Appl. Meteor.,39, 1269–1281.

  • Young, G. S., and J. M. Fritsch, 1989: A proposal for general conventions in analyses of mesoscale boundaries. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,70, 1412–1421.

  • Zechetto, S., P. Trivero, B. Fiscella, and P. Pavese, 1998: Wind stress structure in the unstable marine surface layer detected by SAR. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,86, 1–28.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 57 16 3
PDF Downloads 35 16 4

Shallow Great Lake–Scale Atmospheric Thermal Circulation Imaged by Synthetic Aperture Radar

Nathaniel S. WinsteadApplied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Search for other papers by Nathaniel S. Winstead in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Pierre D. MouradApplied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Search for other papers by Pierre D. Mourad in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a useful tool for observing a wide variety of oceanographic and atmospheric phenomena. This is because capillary waves whose amplitudes are modulated in space and time by oceanic and atmospheric processes are efficient scatterers at SAR wavelengths. In this paper, a SAR image of Lake Michigan taken during the Lake-Induced Convection Experiment is analyzed. The image shows three broad parallel bands identifiable as the components of a shallow, Great Lake–induced thermal circulation:two bands associated with opposing land-breeze circulations, and a middle band containing the signature of boundary layer convection. A cross-frontal cut shows that the width of the two land-breeze fronts varies in a manner consistent with previously reported observations of land and sea breezes superimposed on synoptic flows. The SAR image analysis in conjunction with a mesoscale analysis of a Great Lake–scale convection pattern substantially increases the available knowledge of that pattern. Specifically, the SAR image provides information concerning the precise placement of the surface land-breeze fronts not available from other means. Finally, the SAR analysis shows that the western land-breeze brightness patterns are affected by the shallow terrain along the western shore of Lake Michigan. The latter point therefore suggests that SAR can provide valuable information about the link between variations in surface roughness and/or land use patterns and the horizontal structure of the surface wind stress over coastal regions.

Corresponding author address: Nathaniel S. Winstead, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723.

Email: nathaniel.winstead@jhuapl.edu

Abstract

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a useful tool for observing a wide variety of oceanographic and atmospheric phenomena. This is because capillary waves whose amplitudes are modulated in space and time by oceanic and atmospheric processes are efficient scatterers at SAR wavelengths. In this paper, a SAR image of Lake Michigan taken during the Lake-Induced Convection Experiment is analyzed. The image shows three broad parallel bands identifiable as the components of a shallow, Great Lake–induced thermal circulation:two bands associated with opposing land-breeze circulations, and a middle band containing the signature of boundary layer convection. A cross-frontal cut shows that the width of the two land-breeze fronts varies in a manner consistent with previously reported observations of land and sea breezes superimposed on synoptic flows. The SAR image analysis in conjunction with a mesoscale analysis of a Great Lake–scale convection pattern substantially increases the available knowledge of that pattern. Specifically, the SAR image provides information concerning the precise placement of the surface land-breeze fronts not available from other means. Finally, the SAR analysis shows that the western land-breeze brightness patterns are affected by the shallow terrain along the western shore of Lake Michigan. The latter point therefore suggests that SAR can provide valuable information about the link between variations in surface roughness and/or land use patterns and the horizontal structure of the surface wind stress over coastal regions.

Corresponding author address: Nathaniel S. Winstead, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723.

Email: nathaniel.winstead@jhuapl.edu

Save