• Atlas, D. A., 1966: The balance level in convective storms. J. Atmos. Sci.,23, 635–651.

  • Austin, P. M., and A. C. Bemis, 1950: A quantitative study of the“bright band” in radar precipitation echoes. J. Meteor.,7, 145–151.

  • Balakrishnan, N., and D. S. Zrnić, 1990: Estimation of rain and hail rates in mixed-phase precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 565–583.

  • Barber, P., and C. Yeh, 1975: Scattering of electromagnetic waves by arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies. Appl. Opt.,14, 2864–2872.

  • Basseville, M., and I. V. Nikiforov, 1993: Detection of Abrupt Changes: Theory and Application. Prentice Hall, 528 pp.

  • Blyth, A. M., R. E. Benestad, P. R. Krehbiel, and J. Latham, 1997: Observations of supercooled raindrops in New Mexico summertime cumuli. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 569–575.

  • Bringi, V. N., and A. Hendry, 1990: Technology of polarization diversity radars for meteorology. Radar in Meteorology: Battan Memorial and 40th Anniversary Radar Meteorology Conference, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 153–190.

  • ——, V. Chandrasekar, N. Balakrishnan, and D. S. Zrnić, 1990: An examination of propagation effects on radar measurements at microwave frequencies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,7, 829–840.

  • ——, L. Liu, P. C. Kennedy, V. Chandrasekar, and S. A. Rutledge, 1996: Dual multiparameter radar observations of intense convective storms: The 24 June 1992 case study. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,59, 3–31.

  • ——, K. Knupp, A. Detwiler, L. Liu, I. J. Caylor, and R. A. Black, 1997: Evolution of a Florida thunderstorm during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment: The case of 9 August 1991. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 2131–2160.

  • Carbone, R. E., J. W. Wilson, T. D. Keenan, and J. Hacker, 2000: Tropical island convection in the absence of significant topography. Part I: Life cycle of diurnally formed convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., in press.

  • Carey, L. D., and S. A. Rutledge, 1996: A multiparameter radar case study of the microphysical and kinematic evolution of a lightning producing storm. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,59, 33–64.

  • ——, and ——, 1998: Electrical and multiparameter radar observations of a severe hailstorm. J. Geophys. Res.,103, 13 979–14 000.

  • ——, ——, D. A. Ahijevych, and T. D. Keenan, 2000: Correcting propagation effects in C-band polarimetric radar observations of tropical convection using differential propagation phase. J. Appl. Meteor., in press.

  • Chandrasekar, V., C. A. Atwater, and T. H. Vonder Haar, 1991: Convective latent heating estimates from radar data. Preprints, 25th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Paris, France, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 155–158.

  • ——, E. Gorgucci, and G. Scarchilli, 1993: Optimization of multiparameter radar estimates of rainfall. J. Appl. Meteor.,32, 1288–1293.

  • Changnon, S. A., Jr., 1976: Effects of urban areas and echo merging on radar echo behavior. J. Appl. Meteor.,15, 561–570.

  • Chauzy, S., M. Chong, A. Delannoy, and S. Despiau, 1985: The June 22 tropical squall line observed during COPT 81 experiment: Electrical signatures associated with dynamical structure and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res.,90, 6091–6098.

  • Clarence, N. D., and D. J. Malan, 1957: Preliminary discharge processes in lightning flashes to ground. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,83, 161–172.

  • Conway, J. W., and D. S. Zrnić, 1993: A study of embryo production and hail growth using dual-Doppler and multiparameter radars. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2511–2528.

  • Cooper, W. A., 1974: Possible mechanism for contact nucleation. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1832–1837.

  • Cummins, K. L., M. J. Murphy, E. A. Bardo, W. L. Hiscox, R. B. Pyle, and A. E. Pifer, 1998: A combined TOA/MDF technology upgrade of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network. J. Geophys. Res.,103, 9035–9044.

  • DeMott, C. A., and S. A. Rutledge, 1998: The vertical structure of TOGA COARE convection. Part I: Radar echo distributions. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 2730–2747.

  • Doviak, R. J., and D. S. Zrnić, 1993: Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. 2d ed. Academic Press, 562 pp.

  • Dye, J. E., J. J. Jones, W. P. Winn, T. A. Cerni, B. Gardiner, D. Lamb, R. L. Pitter, J. Hallett, and C. P. R. Saunders, 1986: Early electrification and precipitation development in a small, isolated Montana cumulonimbus. J. Geophys. Res.,91, 1231–1247.

  • ——, W. P. Winn, J. J. Jones, and D. W. Breed, 1989: The electrification of New Mexico thunderstorms, 1. Relationship between precipitation development and the onset of electrification. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 8643–8656.

  • Foster, H., 1950: An unusual observation of lightning. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,31, 140–141.

  • French, J. R., J. H. Helsdon, A. G. Detwiler, and P. L. Smith, 1996:Microphysical and electrical evolution of a Florida thunderstorm, 1. Observations. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 18 961–18 978.

  • Golestani, Y., V. Chandrasekar, and V. N. Bringi, 1989: Intercomparison of multiparameter radar measurements. Proc. 24th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 309–314.

  • Goodman, S. J., D. E. Buechler, P. D. Wright, and W. D. Rust, 1988:Lightning and precipitation history of a microburst-producing storm. Geophys. Res. Lett.,15, 1185–1188.

  • Green, A. W., 1975: An approximation for the shape of large raindrops. J. Appl. Meteor.,14, 1578–1583.

  • Hallett, J., and S. C. Mossop, 1974: Production of secondary ice crystals during the riming process. Nature,249, 26–28.

  • Herzegh, P. H., and A. R. Jameson, 1992: Observing precipitation through dual-polarization radar measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 1365–1374.

  • Houze, R. A., Jr., and C.-P. Cheng, 1977: Radar characteristics of tropical convection observed during GATE: Mean properties and trends over the summer season. Mon. Wea. Rev.,105, 964–980.

  • Hubbert, J., and V. N. Bringi, 1995: An iterative filtering technique for the analysis of copolar differential phase and dual-frequency radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,12, 643–648.

  • Illingworth, A. J., J. W. Goddard, and S. M. Cherry, 1987: Polarization radar studies of precipitation development in convective storms. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,113, 469–489.

  • Jameson, A. R., 1985: Deducing the microphysical character of precipitation from multiple-parameter radar polarization measurements. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,24, 1037–1047.

  • ——, 1991: A comparison of microwave techniques for measuring rainfall. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 32–54.

  • ——, and D. B. Johnson, 1990: Cloud microphysics and radar. Radar in Meteorology: Battan Memorial and 40th Anniversary Radar Meteorology Conference, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 323–340.

  • ——, M. J. Murphy, and E. P. Krider, 1996: Multiple-parameter radar observations of isolated Florida thunderstorms during the onset of electrification. J. Appl. Meteor.,35, 343–354.

  • Jayaratne, E. R., C. P. R. Saunders, and J. Hallet, 1983: Laboratory studies of the charging of soft hail during ice crystal interactions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,109, 609–630.

  • Keenan, T. D., B. R. Morton, X. S. Zhang, and K. Nyguen, 1990: Some characteristics of thunderstorms over Bathurst and Melville Islands near Darwin, Australia. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,116, 1153–1172.

  • ——, and Coauthors, 1994a: Science Plan—Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment. BMRC Research Report 44, 61 pp. [Available from BMRC, P.O. Box 1289K, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.].

  • ——, B. Ferrier, and J. Simpson, 1994b: Development and structure of a maritime continent thunderstorm. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,53, 185–222.

  • ——, K. Glasson, F. Cummings, T. S. Bird, J. Keeler, and J. Lutz, 1998: The BMRC/NCAR C-band polarimetric (C-POL) radar system. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 871–886.

  • Koenig, L. R., 1963: The glaciating behavior of small cumulonimbus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,20, 29–47.

  • Koshak, W. J., R. J. Blakeslee, and J. C. Bailey, 2000: Data retrieval algorithms for validating the Optical Transient Detector and the Lightning Imaging Sensor. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,17, 279–297.

  • Krider, E. P., R. C. Noggle, and M. A. Uman, 1976: A gated wideband magnetic direction finder for lightning return strokes. J. Appl. Meteor.,15, 301–306.

  • Lane-Smith, D. R., 1971: A warm thunderstorm. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,97, 577–578.

  • Larsen, H. R., and E. J. Stansbury, 1974: Association of lightning flashes with precipitation cores extending to height 7 km. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.,36, 1547–1553.

  • López, R. E., and J.-P. Aubagnac, 1997: The lightning activity of a hailstorm as a function of changes in its microphysical characteristics inferred from polarimetric radar observations. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 16 799–16 813.

  • MacGorman, D. R., and W. D. Rust, 1998: The Electrical Nature of Storms. Oxford University Press, 422 pp.

  • Malan, D. J., and B. F. J. Schonland, 1950: An electrostatic fluxmeter of short response-time for use in studies of transient field-changes. Proc. Phys. Soc. London Ser. B,63, 402–408.

  • Marshall, J. S., and S. Radhakant, 1978: Radar precipitation maps as lightning indicators. J. Appl. Meteor.,17, 206–212.

  • Meischner, P. F., V. N. Bringi, D. Heimann, and H. Höller, 1991: A squall line in southern Germany: Kinematics and precipitation formation as deduced by advanced polarimetric and Doppler radar measurements. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 678–701.

  • Mikhailovsky, Y., Y. Agapov, and B. Koloskov, 1992: Electrification of the tropical clouds. Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. on Atmos. Electricity, St. Petersburg, Russia, International Commission of Atmospheric Electricity, 176–178.

  • Mohr, C. G., 1986: Merger of mesoscale data sets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analyses. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,3, 143–161.

  • Moore, C. B., and B. Vonnegut, 1977: The thundercloud. Lightning, Vol. 1, R. H. Golde, Ed., Academic Press, 51–98.

  • ——, B. Vonnegut, B. A. Stein, and H. J. Survillas, 1960: Observations of electrification and lightning in warm clouds. J. Geophys. Res.,65, 1907–1910.

  • Petersen, W. A., 1997: Multi-scale process studies in the tropics: Results from lightning observations. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University, 354 pp.

  • ——, S. A. Rutledge, and R. E. Orville, 1996: Cloud-to-ground lightning observations from TOGA COARE: Selected results and lightning location algorithms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 602–620.

  • ——, R. C. Cifelli, S. A. Rutledge, B. S. Ferrier, and B. F. Smull, 1999: Shipborne dual-Doppler operations during TOGA COARE: Integrated observations of storm kinematics and electrification. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,80, 81–96.

  • Pietrowski, E. L., 1960: An observation of lightning in warm clouds. J. Meteor.,17, 562–563.

  • Pruppacher, H. R., and K. V. Beard, 1970: A wind tunnel investigation of the internal circulation and shape of water drops falling at terminal velocity in air. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,96, 247–256.

  • ——, and J. D. Klett, 1997: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. 2d ed. Kluwer Academic, 954 pp.

  • Ramachandran, R. A. Detwiler, J. Helsdon Jr., P. L. Smith, and V. N. Bringi, 1996: Precipitation development and electrification in Florida thunderstorm cells during Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Project. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 1599–1620.

  • Rickenbach, T. M., and S. A. Rutledge, 1998: Convection in TOGA COARE: Horizontal scale, morphology, and rainfall production. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 2715–2729.

  • Rutledge, S. A., E. R. Williams, and T. D. Keenan, 1992: The Down Under Doppler and Electricity Experiment (DUNDEE): Overview and preliminary results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 3–16.

  • Ryzhkov, A., and D. S. Zrnić, 1995a: Precipitation and attenuation measurements at a 10-cm wavelength. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 2121–2134.

  • ——, and ——, 1995b: Comparison of dual-polarization radar estimators of rain. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,12, 249–256.

  • Saunders, C. P. R., W. D. Keith, and R. P. Mitzeva, 1991: The effect of liquid water content on thunderstorm charging. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 11 007–11 017.

  • Seliga, T. A., and V. N. Bringi, 1976: Potential use of radar differential reflectivity measurements at orthogonal polarizations for measuring precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor.,15, 69–76.

  • Selvam, A. M., R. Vijayakumar, G. K. Manohar, and A. S. R. Murty, 1991: Electrical, microphysical, and dynamical observations in summer monsoon clouds. Atmos. Res.,26, 19–32.

  • Simpson, J., and W. L. Woodley, 1971: Seeding cumulus in Florida:New 1970 results. Science,176, 117–126.

  • ——, N. E. Westcott, R. J. Clerman, R. A. Pielke, 1980: On cumulus mergers. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. A,29, 1–40.

  • ——, T. D. Keenan, B. Ferrier, R. H. Simpson, and G. J. Holland, 1993: Cumulus mergers in the maritime continent region. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,51, 73–99.

  • Smith, P. L., D. J. Musil, A. G. Detwiler, and R. Ramachandran, 1999:Observations of mixed-phase precipitation within a CaPE thunderstorm. J. Appl. Meteor.,38, 145–155.

  • Solomon, R., and M. Baker, 1994: Electrification of New Mexico thunderstorms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 1878–1886.

  • Standler, R. B., and W. P. Winn, 1979: Effects of corona on electric fields beneath thunderstorms. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,105, 285–302.

  • Stansbury, E. J., and J. S. Marshall, 1978: Sferics at two stations compared with radar-observed precipitation. Atmos.–Ocean,16, 281–292.

  • Steiner, M., R. A. Houze Jr., and S. E. Yuter, 1995: Climatological characterization of three-dimensional storm structure from operational radar and rain gauge data. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 1978–2007.

  • Takahashi, N., H. Uyeda, and K. Kikuchi, 1996: Evolution process and precipitation particles of an isolated echo observed with dual-polarization Doppler radar near Sapporo on July 9, 1992. J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., Ser. VII (Geophys.),10, 135–153.

  • Takahashi, T., 1978a: Riming electrification as a charge generation mechanism in thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 1536–1548.

  • ——, 1978b: Electrical properties of oceanic tropical clouds at Ponape, Micronesia. Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 1598–1612.

  • ——, 1983: Electric structure of oceanic tropical clouds and charge separation processes. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,61, 656–669.

  • Tao, W.-K., and J. Simpson, 1984: Cloud interactions and merging: numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 2901–2917.

  • ——, and ——, 1989: A further study of cumulus interactions and mergers: Three-dimensional simulation with trajectory analyses. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2974–3004.

  • Tong, H., V. Chandrasekar, K. R. Knupp, and J. Stalker, 1998: Multiparameter radar observations of time evolution of convective storms: Evaluation of water budgets and latent heating rates. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 1097–1109.

  • Uman, M. A., 1987: The Lightning Discharge. Academic Press, 377 pp.

  • Vonnegut, B., 1994: The atmospheric electricity paradigm. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 53–61.

  • Westcott, N., 1984: A historical perspective on cloud mergers. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,65, 219–226.

  • Williams, E. R., 1989: The tripole structure of thunderstorms. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 13 151–13 167.

  • ——, M. E. Weber, and R. E. Orville, 1989: The relationship between lightning type and convective state of thunderclouds. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 13 213–13 220.

  • ——, S. A. Rutledge, S. C. Geotis, N. Renno, E. Rasmussen, and T. Rickenbach, 1992: A radar and electrical study of tropical hot towers. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1386–1395.

  • Workman, E. J., and S. E. Reynolds, 1949: Electrical activity as related to thunderstorm cell growth. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,30, 142–149.

  • Young, K. C., 1993: Microphysical Processes in Clouds. Oxford University Press, 427 pp.

  • Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1995: Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida Cumulonimbus. Part II:Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1941–1963.

  • Zipser, E. J., and K. R. Lutz, 1994: The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability? Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 1751–1759.

  • Zrnić, D. S., N. Balakrishnan, C. L. Ziegler, V. N. Bringi, K. Aydin, T. Matejka, 1993: Polarimetric signatures in the stratiform region of a mesoscale convective system. J. Appl. Meteor.,32, 678–693.

  • ——, D. S., T. D. Keenan, L. D. Carey, and P. T. May, 2000: Sensitivity analysis of polarimetric variables at a 5-cm wavelength in rain. J. Appl Meteor., in press.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 157 157 32
PDF Downloads 134 134 33

The Relationship between Precipitation and Lightning in Tropical Island Convection: A C-Band Polarimetric Radar Study

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

One of the primary scientific objectives of the Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment was to study cloud electrification processes in tropical island convection, in particular, the coupling between ice phase precipitation and lightning production. To accomplish this goal, a C-band polarimetric radar was deployed in the Tropics (11.6°S, 130.8°E) for the first time, accompanied by a suite of lightning measurements. Using observations of the propagation-corrected horizontal reflectivity and differential reflectivity, along with specific differential phase, rain and ice masses were estimated during the entire life cycle of an electrically active tropical convective complex (known locally as Hector) over the Tiwi Islands on 28 November 1995. Hector’s precipitation structure as inferred from these raw and derived radar fields was then compared in time and space to the measured surface electric field, cloud-to-ground (CG) and total lightning flash rates, and ground strike locations.

During Hector’s developing stage, precipitating convective cells along island sea breezes were dominated by warm rain processes. No significant electric fields or lightning were associated with this stage of Hector, despite substantial rainfall rates. Aided by gust front forcing, a cumulus merger process resulted in larger, taller, and more intense convective complexes that were dominated by mixed-phase precipitation processes. During the mature phase of Hector, lightning and the surface electric field were strongly correlated to the mixed phase ice mass and rainfall. Merged convective complexes produced 97% of the rainfall and mixed-phase ice mass and 100% of the CG lightning. As Hector dissipated, lightning activity rapidly ceased.

As evidenced from the multiparameter radar observations, the multicell nature of Hector resulted in the continuous lofting of supercooled drops to temperatures between −10° and −20°C in discrete updraft cores during both the early and mature phases. The freezing of these drops provided instantaneous precipitation-sized ice particles that may have subsequently rimed and participated in thunderstorm electrification via the noninductive charging mechanism.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Lawrence D. Carey, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1371.

Email: carey@olympic.atmos.colostate.edu

Abstract

One of the primary scientific objectives of the Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment was to study cloud electrification processes in tropical island convection, in particular, the coupling between ice phase precipitation and lightning production. To accomplish this goal, a C-band polarimetric radar was deployed in the Tropics (11.6°S, 130.8°E) for the first time, accompanied by a suite of lightning measurements. Using observations of the propagation-corrected horizontal reflectivity and differential reflectivity, along with specific differential phase, rain and ice masses were estimated during the entire life cycle of an electrically active tropical convective complex (known locally as Hector) over the Tiwi Islands on 28 November 1995. Hector’s precipitation structure as inferred from these raw and derived radar fields was then compared in time and space to the measured surface electric field, cloud-to-ground (CG) and total lightning flash rates, and ground strike locations.

During Hector’s developing stage, precipitating convective cells along island sea breezes were dominated by warm rain processes. No significant electric fields or lightning were associated with this stage of Hector, despite substantial rainfall rates. Aided by gust front forcing, a cumulus merger process resulted in larger, taller, and more intense convective complexes that were dominated by mixed-phase precipitation processes. During the mature phase of Hector, lightning and the surface electric field were strongly correlated to the mixed phase ice mass and rainfall. Merged convective complexes produced 97% of the rainfall and mixed-phase ice mass and 100% of the CG lightning. As Hector dissipated, lightning activity rapidly ceased.

As evidenced from the multiparameter radar observations, the multicell nature of Hector resulted in the continuous lofting of supercooled drops to temperatures between −10° and −20°C in discrete updraft cores during both the early and mature phases. The freezing of these drops provided instantaneous precipitation-sized ice particles that may have subsequently rimed and participated in thunderstorm electrification via the noninductive charging mechanism.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Lawrence D. Carey, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1371.

Email: carey@olympic.atmos.colostate.edu

Save