• Bohren, C. F., and B. A. Albrecht, 1998: Atmospheric Thermodynamics. Oxford University Press, 402 pp.

  • Carlson, T. N., 1991: Mid-Latitude Weather Systems. HarperCollins Academic, 507 pp.

  • Curry, J. A., and P. J. Webster, 1999: Thermodynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. Academic Press, 471 pp.

  • Davis, C. A., E. Donall Grell, and M. A. Shapiro, 1996: The balanced dynamical nature of a rapidly intensifying oceanic cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 3–26.

  • Durran, D. R., and J. B. Klemp, 1982: On the effects of moisture on the Brunt–Väisälä frequency. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 2152–2158.

  • Emanuel, K. A., 1985: Frontal circulations in the presence of small moist symmetric stability. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1062–1071.

  • ——, 1994: Atmospheric Convection. Oxford University Press, 580 pp.

  • ——, M. Fantini, and A. J. Thorpe, 1987: Baroclinic instability in an environment of small stability to slantwise moist convection. Part I: Two-dimensional models. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 1559–1573.

  • Hauf, T., and H. Höller, 1987: Entropy and potential temperature. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 2887–2901.

  • Hirschberg, P. A., and J. M. Fritsch, 1991: Tropopause undulations and the development of extratropical cyclones. Part II: Diagnostic analysis and conceptual model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 518–550.

  • Holton, J. R., 1992: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. 3d ed. Academic Press, 511 pp.

  • Iribarne, J. V., and W. L. Godson, 1981: Atmospheric Thermodynamics. 2d ed. D. Reidel, 259 pp.

  • Kuo, Y.-H., M. A. Shapiro, and E. G. Donall, 1991: The interaction between baroclinic and diabatic processes in a numerical simulation of a rapidly intensifying extratropical marine cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 368–384.

  • Lagouvardos, K., Y. Lemaitre, and G. Scialom, 1993: Importance of diabatic processes on ageostrophic circulations observed during the FRONTS 87 experiment. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,119, 1321–1345.

  • Orlanski, I., B. Ross, L. Polinsky, and R. Shaginaw, 1985: Advances in the theory of atmospheric fronts. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 28B, Academic Press, 223–252.

  • Pauley, P. M., and S. J. Nieman, 1992: A comparison of quasigeostrophic and nonquasigeostrophic vertical motions for a model-simulated rapidly intensifying marine extratropical cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 1108–1134.

  • Schultz, D. M., and W. J. Steenburgh, 1999: The formation of a forward-tilting cold front with multiple cloud bands during Superstorm 1993. Mon. Wea. Rev.,127, 1108–1124.

  • Whitaker, J. S., and C. A. Davis, 1994: Cyclogenesis in a saturated environment. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 889–907.

  • Xu, Q., 1989: Extended Sawyer–Eliassen equation for frontal circulations in the presence of small viscous moist symmetric stability. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2671–2683.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 10 10 0
PDF Downloads 6 6 0

Effective Stratification for Pseudoadiabatic Ascent

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  • | 2 Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, The University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Effective stratification can be interpreted as the resistance to upward motion of saturated air parcels experiencing condensation. Previously published expressions for effective stratification conflict with each other, and the most widely distributed expression contains an O(1) error. A derivation of effective stratification is presented that exposes its physical interpretation and that reveals the origin of the flaw in the incorrect derivation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. John W. Nielsen-Gammon, MS 3150, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3150.

Email: n-g@tamu.edu

Abstract

Effective stratification can be interpreted as the resistance to upward motion of saturated air parcels experiencing condensation. Previously published expressions for effective stratification conflict with each other, and the most widely distributed expression contains an O(1) error. A derivation of effective stratification is presented that exposes its physical interpretation and that reveals the origin of the flaw in the incorrect derivation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. John W. Nielsen-Gammon, MS 3150, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3150.

Email: n-g@tamu.edu

Save