Reflectivity, Ice Scattering, and Lightning Characteristics of Hurricane Eyewalls and Rainbands. Part II: Intercomparison of Observations

Daniel J. Cecil Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

Search for other papers by Daniel J. Cecil in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Edward J. Zipser Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Search for other papers by Edward J. Zipser in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Part I of this two-part paper treats Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar, passive microwave, and lightning observations in hurricanes individually. This paper (Part II) examines relationships between these parameters (and implications of the relationships). Quantitative relationships between lightning occurrence and 85-GHz brightness temperature, 37-GHz brightness temperature, and radar reflectivity in the mixed phase region are established separately for hurricane eyewall regions, inner rainband regions, and outer rainband regions; other tropical oceanic regions; and tropical continental regions. When any of the brightness temperature or radar parameters are held constant as controls, lightning is more frequent in hurricane outer rainbands than elsewhere over tropical oceans, and more frequent over continents than even in the outer rainbands. Reflectivity profiles associated with specific brightness temperatures are presented, demonstrating a link between high-altitude ice phase precipitation and 85-GHz scattering and a link between lower-altitude precipitation and 37-GHz scattering. Based on the combination of radar, passive microwave, and lightning observations, it is proposed that supercooled cloud water occurs preferentially in outer rainbands compared to other tropical oceanic precipitation. The suspected microphysical differences produce only subtle differences in the remote sensing parameters other than lightning.

Current affiliation: National Space Science and Technology Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama

Corresponding author address: Daniel J. Cecil, National Space Science and Technology Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805. Email: Daniel.Cecil@msfc.nasa.gov

Abstract

Part I of this two-part paper treats Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar, passive microwave, and lightning observations in hurricanes individually. This paper (Part II) examines relationships between these parameters (and implications of the relationships). Quantitative relationships between lightning occurrence and 85-GHz brightness temperature, 37-GHz brightness temperature, and radar reflectivity in the mixed phase region are established separately for hurricane eyewall regions, inner rainband regions, and outer rainband regions; other tropical oceanic regions; and tropical continental regions. When any of the brightness temperature or radar parameters are held constant as controls, lightning is more frequent in hurricane outer rainbands than elsewhere over tropical oceans, and more frequent over continents than even in the outer rainbands. Reflectivity profiles associated with specific brightness temperatures are presented, demonstrating a link between high-altitude ice phase precipitation and 85-GHz scattering and a link between lower-altitude precipitation and 37-GHz scattering. Based on the combination of radar, passive microwave, and lightning observations, it is proposed that supercooled cloud water occurs preferentially in outer rainbands compared to other tropical oceanic precipitation. The suspected microphysical differences produce only subtle differences in the remote sensing parameters other than lightning.

Current affiliation: National Space Science and Technology Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama

Corresponding author address: Daniel J. Cecil, National Space Science and Technology Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805. Email: Daniel.Cecil@msfc.nasa.gov

Save
  • Adler, R. F., H-Y. M. Yeh, N. Prasad, W-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 1991: Microwave simulations of a tropical rainfall system with a three-dimensional cloud model. J. Appl. Meteor., 30 , 924953.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, M. L., R. W. Burpee, and F. D. Marks Jr., 1996: Vertical motion characteristics of tropical cyclones determined with airborne Doppler radial velocities. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 18871909.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, R. A., and J. Hallett, 1986: Observations of the distribution of ice in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 802822.

  • Black, R. A., and J. Hallett, . 1999: Electrification of the hurricane. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 20042028.

  • Boccippio, D. J., S. J. Goodman, and S. Heckman, 2000: Regional differences in tropical lightning distributions. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 22312248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cecil, D. J., E. J. Zipser, and S. W. Nesbitt, 2002: Reflectivity, ice scattering, and lightning characteristics of hurricane eyewalls and rainbands. Part I: Quantitative description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 769784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dye, J. E., and Coauthors. 1986: Early electrification and precipitation development in a small isolated Montana cumulonimbus. J. Geophys. Res., 91 , 12311247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dye, J. E., J. J. Jones, A. J. Weinheimer, and W. P. Winn, 1988: Observations within two regions of charge during initial thunderstorm electrification. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 114 , 12711290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dye, J. E., W. P. Winn, J. J. Jones, and D. W. Breed, 1989: The electrification of New Mexico thunderstorms. Part I: The relationship between precipitation development and the onset of electrification. J. Geophys. Res., 94 , 86438656.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrier, B. S., 1994: A double-moment multiple-phase four-class bulk ice scheme. Part I: Description. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 249280.

  • Jayaratne, E. R., C. P. R. Saunders, and J. Hallett, 1983: Laboratory studies of the charging of soft-hail during ice crystal interactions. Quart J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 109 , 609630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jorgensen, D. P., E. J. Zipser, and M. A. LeMone, 1985: Vertical motions in intense hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 839856.

  • Marks, F. D. Jr,, and R. A. Houze Jr., 1987: Inner core structure of Hurricane Alicia from airborne Doppler radar observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 12961317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marks, F. D. Jr,, and L. K. Shay, PDT-5,. 1998: Landfalling tropical cyclones: Forecast problems and associated research opportunities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79 , 305323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mohr, K. I., J. S. Famiglietti, and E. J. Zipser, 1999: The contribution to tropical rainfall with respect to convective system type, size, and intensity estimated from the 85-GHz ice-scattering signature. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 596606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nesbitt, S. W., E. J. Zipser, and D. J. Cecil, 2000: A census of precipitation features in the Tropics using TRMM: Radar, ice scattering, and lightning observations. J. Climate, 13 , 40874106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petersen, W. A., and S. A. Rutledge, 2001: Regional variability in tropical convection: Observations from TRMM. J. Climate, 14 , 35663586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, S. E., M. Brook, and M. F. Gourley, 1957: Thunderstorm charge separation. J. Meteor., 14 , 426436.

  • Saunders, C. P. R., W. D. Keith, and R. P. Mitzeva, 1991: The influence of liquid water on thunderstorm charging. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 1100711017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seo, E. K., 2000: Sensitivity of hydrometeor profiles and satellite brightness temperatures to model microphysics for MCSs over land and ocean: Model comparison using EOF analysis and implications for rain and latent heat retrievals. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 177 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, E. A., A. Mugnai, H. J. Cooper, G. J. Tripoli, and X. Xiang, 1992: Foundations for statistical physical precipitation retrieval from passive microwave satellite measurements. Part I: Brightness temperature properties of a time-dependent cloud radiation model. J. Appl. Meteor., 31 , 506531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spencer, R. W., 1986: A satellite passive 37-GHz scattering-based method for measuring oceanic rain rates. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25 , 754766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spencer, R. W., H. M. Goodman, and R. E. Hood, 1989: Precipitation retrieval over land and ocean with the SSM/I: Identification and characteristics of the scattering signal. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6 , 254273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takahashi, T., 1978: Riming electrification as a charge generation mechanism in thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 15361548.

  • Tao, W-K., and J. Simpson, 1993: Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, Part I: Model description. Terr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci., 4 , 3572.

  • Toracinta, E. R., D. J. Cecil, E. J. Zipser, and S. W. Nesbitt, 2002: Radar, passive microwave, and lightning characteristics of precipitating systems in the Tropics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 802824.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vivekanandan, J., J. Turk, and V. N. Bringi, 1991: Ice water estimation and characterization using passive microwave radiometry. J. Appl. Meteor., 30 , 14071421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilheit, T. T., 1986: Some comments on passive microwave measurement of rain. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67 , 12261232.

  • Wu, R., and J. A. Weinman, 1984: Microwave radiances from precipitating clouds containing aspherical ice, combined phase, and liquid hydrometeors. J. Geophys. Res., 89 , 71707178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zipser, E. J., and K. R. Lutz, 1994: The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability? Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 17517159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 281 100 6
PDF Downloads 243 80 5