• Beard, G. S., 1993: Seasonal climate summary southern hemisphere (spring 1991): A maturing El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 42 , 8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromwich, D. H., 1989: Subsynoptic-scale cyclone developments in the Ross Sea sector of the Antarctic. Polar and Arctic Lows, P. F. Twitchell, E. A. Rasmussen, and K. L. Davidson, Eds., A Deepak, 331–345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromwich, D. H., 1991: Mesoscale cyclogenesis over southwestern Ross Sea linked to strong katabatic winds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 17361752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromwich, D. H., and J. F. Carrasco, 1995: An investigation of an intense mesoscale cyclone over southern Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica. Preprints, Fourth Conf. on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography. Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 238–243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromwich, D. H., J. F. Carrasco, and C. R. Stearns, 1992: Satellite observations of katabatic wind propagation for great distances across the Ross Ice Shelf. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 19401949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromwich, D. H., J. F. Carrasco, Z. Liu, and R. Y. Tzeng, 1993: Hemispheric atmospheric variations and oceanographic impacts associated with katabatic surges across the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 1304513062.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromwich, D. H., Y. Du, and T. R. Parish, 1994: Numerical simulation of winter katabatic winds from West Antarctica crossing Siple Coast and the Ross Ice Shelf. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 14171435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bromwich, D. H., A. J. Monaghan, J. G. Powers, J. J. Cassano, H. L. Wei, Y. H. Kuo, and A. Pellegrini, 2003: Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS): A case study from the 2000–01 field season. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 412434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, A. M., 1979: A synoptic climatology of satellite-observed extratropical cyclone activity for the Southern Hemisphere winter. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol., B27 , 265279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, A. M., and D. A. Carpenter, 1989: Satellite climatology of “polar air” vortices for the Southern Hemisphere Winter. Polar and Arctic Lows, P. F. Twitchell, E. A. Rasmussen, and K. L. Davidson, Eds., A Deepak, 401–413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, A. M., and M. Fitch, 1993: Synoptic aspects of Antarctic mesocyclones. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 1299713018.

  • Carleton, A. M., and Y. Song, 1997: Synoptic climatology, and intrahemispheric associations, of cold air mesocyclones in the Australasian sector. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 1387313888.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, A. M., and Y. Song, 2000: Satellite passive sensing of the marine atmosphere associated with cold-air mesoscale cyclones. Prof. Geogr., 52 , 289306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., 1994: Dynamics of mesoscale cyclogenesis adjacent to the Pacific coast of Antarctica. Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, 286 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., and D. H. Bromwich, 1993a: Mesoscale cyclogenesis dynamics over the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 1297312995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., and D. H. Bromwich, 1993b: Satellite and automatic weather station analyses of katabatic surges across the Ross Ice Shelf. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology: Studies Based on Automatic Weather Stations, D. H. Bromwich and C. R. Stearns, Eds., Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 61, Amer. Geophys. Union, 93–108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., and D. H. Bromwich, 1994: Climatological aspects of mesoscale cyclogenesis over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf regions of Antarctica. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 24052425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., and D. H. Bromwich, 1995: A case of a midtropospheric subsynoptic-scale vortex development over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf area, Antarctica. Antarct. Sci., 7 , 199210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., and D. H. Bromwich, 1996a: Antarctic mesoscale cyclone activity near Terra Nova Bay and Byrd Glacier during 1991. Atmos.–Ocean Syst., 4 , 4372.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., and D. H. Bromwich, 1996b: Un estudio de la actividad de ciclones a mesoescala en las cercanías de la Península Antártica. Serie Científica INACH, 46 , 83101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., and D. H. Bromwich, 1997: A survey of mesocyclones near the Antarctic Peninsula using digital satellite imagery collected at Palmer Station. Serie Científica INACH, 47 , 3957.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., D. H. Bromwich, and Z. Liu, 1997a: Mesoscale cyclone activity over Antarctica during 1991, Part 1: Marie Byrd Land. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 1392313937.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrasco, J. F., D. H. Bromwich, and Z. Liu, 1997b: Mesoscale cyclone activity over Antarctica during 1991, Part 2: Near the Antarctic Peninsula. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 1393913954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Hoedt, G. C., 1992: Seasonal climate summary southern hemisphere (winter 1991): A warm Pacific episode develops. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 40 , 239245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Egger, J., 1985: Slope winds and the axisymmetric circulation over Antarctica. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 18591867.

  • Egger, J., 1992: Topographic wave modification and the angular momentum balance of the Antarctic troposphere. J. Amos. Sci., 49 , 327334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Engels, R., and G. Heinemann, 1996: Three-dimensional structures of summertime Antarctic meso-scale cyclones: Part II: Numerical simulation with a limited area model. Atmos.–Ocean Syst., 4 , 181208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flores, G., 1996: Caracterización de las precipitaciones en la zona Austral de Chile. Escuela Técnica Aeronáutica, Santiago, Chile, 71 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forbes, G. S., and W. D. Lottes, 1985: Classification of mesoscale vortices in polar airstreams and influence of large scale environment on their evolution. Tellus, 37A , 132155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaffney, D., 1991: Seasonal climate summary southern hemisphere (summer 1990–91): A strong Australian monsoon with record rainfall. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 39 , 267272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallée, H., 1995: Simulation of mesocyclonic activity in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 20512069.

  • Gallée, H., 1996: Mesoscale atmospheric circulation over the southwestern Ross Sea sector, Antarctica. J. Appl. Meteor., 35 , 11291141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo, Z., D. H. Bromwich, and J. J. Cassano, 2003: Evaluation of Polar MM5 simulations of Antarctic atmospheric circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 384411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heinemann, G., 1990: Mesoscale vortices in the Weddell Sea region (Antarctica). Mon. Wea. Rev., 118 , 779793.

  • Heinemann, G., 1996a: Three-dimensional structures of summertime Antarctic meso-scale cyclones: Part I: Observational studies with aircraft, satellite and conventional data. Atmos.–Ocean Syst., 4 , 149180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heinemann, G., 1996b: On the development of wintertime meso-scale cyclones near the sea ice front in the Arctic and Antarctic. Atmos.–Ocean Syst., 4 , 188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heinemann, G., and T. Klein, 2003: Simulations of topographically forced mesocyclones in the Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 302316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, I. N., 1989: The Antarctic drainage flow: Implications for hemispheric flow on the Southern Hemisphere. Antarct. Sci., 1 , 279290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, D. A., and I. Simmonds, 1993: A climatology of Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones. Climate Dyn., 9 , 131145.

  • Klein, T., and G. Heinemann, 2001: On the forcing mechanisms of mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea region, Antarctica: Process studies using a mesoscale numerical model. Meteor. Z., 10 , 113122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyons, S. W., 1983: Characteristics of intense Antarctic depressions. First. Int. Conf. on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 238–240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murray, R. J., and I. Simmonds, 1991: A numerical scheme for tracking cyclone centers from digital data. Part II: Application to January and July general circulation model simulation. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 39 , 167180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O'Connor, W. P., D. H. Bromwich, and J. F. Carrasco, 1994: Cyclonically forced barrier winds along the Transantarctic Mountains near Ross Island. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 137150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parish, T. R., 1992: On the interaction between Antarctic katabatic winds and tropospheric motion in the high southern latitudes. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 40 , 149167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parish, T. R., and D. H. Bromwich, 1987: The surface windfield over the Antarctic ice sheets. Nature, 328 , 5154.

  • Parish, T. R., and D. H. Bromwich, 1991: Continental-scale simulation of the Antarctic katabatic wind regime. J. Climate, 4 , 135146.

  • Rasmussen, E., 1992: Northern and southern hemispheric polar lows—A comparative study. Proc. Fifth Workshop on Italian Research on the Antarctic Atmosphere, Vol. 45, Bologna, Italy, Italian Physical Society, 3–18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rockey, C. C., and D. A. Braten, 1995: Characterization of polar cyclonic activity and relationship to observed snowfall events at McMurdo Station, Antartica. Preprints, Fourth Conf. on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, Dallas, TX. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 244–245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmonds, I., K. Keay, and E-P. Lim, 2003: Synoptic activity in the seas around Antarctica. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 272288.

  • Sinclair, M. R., 1994: An objective cyclone climatology for the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 22392256.

  • Sinclair, M. R., 1995: A climatology of cyclogenesis for the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 16011619.

  • Smith, S. R., J. F. Carrasco, and Z. Liu, 1993: A case study of a Siple Coast mesocyclone. Antarct. J. U. S., 28 (5) 283285.

  • Streten, N. A., and A. J. Troup, 1973: A synoptic climatology of satellite-observed cloud vortices over the Southern Hemisphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99 , 5672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, J., and J. P. Thomas, 1992: Southern ocean weather systems in satellite imagery and operational numerical analyses. Preprints, Sixth Conf. on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, Atlanta, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 149–152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, J., and J. P. Thomas, 1994: Summer season mesoscale cyclones in the Bellingshausen–Weddell region of the Antarctic and links with the synoptic scale environment. Int. J. Climatol., 14 , 871894.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, J., T. A. Lachlan-Cope, D. E. Warren, and C. N. Duncan, 1993: A mesoscale vortex over Halley Station, Antarctica. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 13171336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, J., T. A. Lachlan-Cope, J. P. Thomas, and S. R. Colwell, 1995: The synoptic origins of precipitation over the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarct. Sci., 7 , 327337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, J., G. Corcoran, S. Cummins, T. Lachlan-Cope, and S. Leonard, 1996: Seasonal variability of mesocyclone activity in the Bellingshausen/Weddell region of Antarctica. Global Atmos.–Ocean Syst., 5 , 7397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, J., G. J. Marshall, and T. Lachlan-Cope, 1998: Analysis of synoptic-scale low pressure systems within the Antarctic Peninsula sector of the circumpolar trough. Int. J. Climatol., 18 , 253280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tzeng, R. Y., D. H. Bromwich, and T. R. Parish, 1993: Present day Antarctic climatology of the NCAR Community Climate Model version 1. J. Climate, 6 , 205226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Woert, M. L., R. H. Whritner, D. E. Waliser, D. H. Bromwich, and J. C. Comiso, 1992: ARC: A source of multisensor satellite data for polar science. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 73 , 657576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whritner, R. H., D. Lubin, and E. Nelson, 1998: The Arctic and Antarctic Research Center: Support for research during 1996–1997. Antarct. J. U. S., 33 (2) 36.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 294 156 8
PDF Downloads 258 147 11

Distribution and Characteristics of Mesoscale Cyclones in the Antarctic: Ross Sea Eastward to the Weddell Sea

View More View Less
  • 1 Direccion Meteorologica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  • | 2 Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar Research Center, and Atmospheric Sciences Program, Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Restricted access

Abstract

The mesoscale cyclone activity observed in the portion of Antarctica that faces the South Pacific Ocean and Weddell Sea area is summarized from a study of 1991. In general, area-normalized results reveal much greater mesoscale cyclonic activity over the Ross Sea/Ross Ice Shelf and southern Marie Byrd Land than on both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. More than 50% of the observed mesoscale vortices are of the comma cloud type. The average diameter of mesoscale vortices is approximately 200 km near Terra Nova Bay, 270 km near Byrd Glacier, and 280 km near Siple Coast. Near the Antarctic Peninsula, the average diameter is about 370 km over the Bellingshausen Sea and 380 km on the Weddell Sea side. The largest percentage of deep vortices occurs over the Bellingshausen Sea sector (38% of all cases), where convective instability frequently occurs. Over the Ross Sea/Ross Ice Shelf and Weddell Sea sectors the majority of the mesoscale vortices are low cloud features that probably do not exceed the 700-hPa level due to the prevailing lower-atmospheric stability. The areas identified as sources of mesoscale vortices concur with the locations of enhanced katabatic winds.

A synthesis of the available literature leads to some general characteristics of mesoscale cyclone formation and development. Mesoscale cyclogenesis is associated with areas of warm and/or cold air advection, low-level baroclinicity, and cyclonic vorticity resulting from the stretching mechanism. Subsequent intensification depends on the presence of upper-level support. Spatial and temporal variability in mesoscale cyclone formation is often related to the behavior of synoptic-scale cyclone tracks. Mesoscale cyclones can generate precipitation and severe weather conditions and thus present a critical forecasting challenge.

Corresponding author address: Dr. David H. Bromwich, Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University, 1090 Carmack Rd., Columbus, OH 43210. Email: bromwich@polarmet1.mps.ohio-state.edu

Abstract

The mesoscale cyclone activity observed in the portion of Antarctica that faces the South Pacific Ocean and Weddell Sea area is summarized from a study of 1991. In general, area-normalized results reveal much greater mesoscale cyclonic activity over the Ross Sea/Ross Ice Shelf and southern Marie Byrd Land than on both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. More than 50% of the observed mesoscale vortices are of the comma cloud type. The average diameter of mesoscale vortices is approximately 200 km near Terra Nova Bay, 270 km near Byrd Glacier, and 280 km near Siple Coast. Near the Antarctic Peninsula, the average diameter is about 370 km over the Bellingshausen Sea and 380 km on the Weddell Sea side. The largest percentage of deep vortices occurs over the Bellingshausen Sea sector (38% of all cases), where convective instability frequently occurs. Over the Ross Sea/Ross Ice Shelf and Weddell Sea sectors the majority of the mesoscale vortices are low cloud features that probably do not exceed the 700-hPa level due to the prevailing lower-atmospheric stability. The areas identified as sources of mesoscale vortices concur with the locations of enhanced katabatic winds.

A synthesis of the available literature leads to some general characteristics of mesoscale cyclone formation and development. Mesoscale cyclogenesis is associated with areas of warm and/or cold air advection, low-level baroclinicity, and cyclonic vorticity resulting from the stretching mechanism. Subsequent intensification depends on the presence of upper-level support. Spatial and temporal variability in mesoscale cyclone formation is often related to the behavior of synoptic-scale cyclone tracks. Mesoscale cyclones can generate precipitation and severe weather conditions and thus present a critical forecasting challenge.

Corresponding author address: Dr. David H. Bromwich, Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University, 1090 Carmack Rd., Columbus, OH 43210. Email: bromwich@polarmet1.mps.ohio-state.edu

Save