• Asai, T., 1970: Stability of a plane parallel flow with variable vertical shear and unstable stratification. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 48 , 129139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asai, T., , and Y. Miura, 1981: An analytical study of meso-scale vortex-like disturbances observed around Wakasa Bay area. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 59 , 832843.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, A. M., 1991: Satellite Remote Sensing in Meteorology. CRC Press, 291 pp.

  • Emanuel, K. A., , and R. Rotunno, 1989: Polar lows as arctic hurricanes. Tellus, 41A , 117.

  • Fu, G., 1999: An observational and numerical study on polar lows over the Japan Sea. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tokyo, 109 pp.

  • Fujimori, J., and Members of Technical Section, Akita Local Meteorological Observatory,. 1987: Gust over the northern coastal area of Akita prefecture (in Japanese). Sendai District Meteorological Observatory Tech. Note, Vol. 4, 312–326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, S. L., , and G. C. Craig, 1998: A simple theoretical model for the intensification of tropical cyclones and polar lows. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 124 , 919947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harley, D. G., 1960: Frontal contour analysis of a “polar low.”. Meteor. Mag, 89 , 146147.

  • Heinemann, G., , and C. Claud, 1997: Meeting summary: Report of a workshop on “Theoretical and observational studies of polar lows” of the European geophysical society polar lows working group. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 78 , 26432658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuroda, Y., 1992: The convergent cloud band and the shipwreck in the Japan Sea (in Japanese). Sea Sky, 67 , 261279.

  • Lee, T-Y., , and Y-Y. Park, 1998: A numerical modeling study of mesoscale cyclongenesis to the east of the Korean peninsula. Mon. Wea. Rev, 126 , 23052329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miyazawa, S., 1967: On vortical mesoscale disturbances observed during the period of heavy snow or rain in the Hokuriku district. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 45 , 166176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Motoki, T., 1974: A small cyclonic echo pattern formed in the Ishikari Plain (in Japanese). Tenki, 21 , 245250.

  • Nagata, S., 1993: Meso-β-scale vortices developing along the Japan-sea Polar-airmass Convergence Zone (JPCZ) cloud band: Numerical simulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71 , 4357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niino, H., , and N. Misawa, 1984: An experimental and theoretical study of barotropic instability. J. Atmos. Sci, 41 , 19922011.

  • Ninomiya, K., 1989: Polar/comma-cloud lows over the Japan Sea and the northwestern Pacific in winter. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67 , 8397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ninomiya, K., 1991: Polar low development over the east coast of the Asian continent on 9–11 December 1985. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 69 , 669685.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ninomiya, K., 1994: A meso-scale low family formed over the northeastern Japan Sea in the northwestern part a parent polar low. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 72 , 589603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ninomiya, K., , and K. Hoshino, 1990: Evolution process and multi-scale structure of a polar low developed over the Japan Sea on 11–12 December, 1985. Part II: Meso-β-scale low in meso-α-scale polar low. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 68 , 307318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ninomiya, K., , K. Hoshino, , and K. Kurihara, 1990: Evolution process and multi-scale structure of a polar low developed over the Japan Sea on 11–12 December, 1985. Part I: Evolution process and meso-α-scale structure. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 68 , 293306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ninomiya, K., , K. Wakahara, , and H. Ohkubo, 1993: Meso-α-scale low development over the northeastern Japan Sea under the influence of a parent large-scale low and a cold vortex aloft. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71 , 7391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyuda, H., , H. Fukatsu, , and H. Eguchi, 1976: Analysis of vortical radar echo (in Japanese). Tenki, 23 , 255266.

  • Rasmussen, E., 1985: A polar low development over the Barents Sea. Tellus, 37A , 407418.

  • Rasmussen, E., , and J. Turner, 2003: Polar Lows Mesoscale Weather Systems in the Polar Regions. Cambridge University Press, 612 pp.

  • Shapiro, M. A., , L. S. Fedor, , and T. Hampel, 1987: Research aircraft measurements of a polar low over the Norwegian Sea. Tellus, 39A , 272306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsuboki, K., , and G. Wakahama, 1992: Mesoscale cyclogenesis in winter monsoon air streams: Quasi-geostrophic baroclinic instability as a mechanism of the cyclogenesis off the west coast of Hokkaido Island, Japan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70 , 7793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakahara, K., 1989: Review on small-scale low over the west coast of Hokkaido (in Japanese). Sapporo District Meteorological Observatory Tech. Note, Vol. 38, 1–12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yanase, W., , G. Fu, , H. Niino, , and T. Kato, 2004: A polar low over the Japan Sea on 21 January 1997. Part II: A numerical study. Mon. Wea. Rev, 132 , 15521574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 26 26 2
PDF Downloads 35 35 2

A Polar Low over the Japan Sea on 21 January 1997. Part I: Observational Analysis

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Marine Meteorology, Ocean University of China, Quingdao, China
  • | 2 Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Minamidai, Nakano, Tokyo, Japan
  • | 3 Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

A polar low was observed over the Japan Sea on 21 January 1997. Part I of this paper focuses on the observational analyses by using all available observational data from surface meteorological stations, Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5), Sapporo and Niigata radars, 20-km resolution regional objective analysis (RANAL) data, Advanced Earth Observing System/NASA Scatterometer (ADEOS/NSCAT) wind data over oceans, and NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channel 2 and channel 4 images to document its spatial and temporal structures. The detailed evolutionary process of this polar low is described using GMS-5 data as well as Sapporo and Niigata radar data. This is the first paper to show the detailed evolution of a polar low feature by using radar data.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Gang Fu, Dept. of Marine Meteorology, Ocean University of China, No. 5, Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China. Email: fugang@ouc.edu.cn

Abstract

A polar low was observed over the Japan Sea on 21 January 1997. Part I of this paper focuses on the observational analyses by using all available observational data from surface meteorological stations, Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5), Sapporo and Niigata radars, 20-km resolution regional objective analysis (RANAL) data, Advanced Earth Observing System/NASA Scatterometer (ADEOS/NSCAT) wind data over oceans, and NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channel 2 and channel 4 images to document its spatial and temporal structures. The detailed evolutionary process of this polar low is described using GMS-5 data as well as Sapporo and Niigata radar data. This is the first paper to show the detailed evolution of a polar low feature by using radar data.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Gang Fu, Dept. of Marine Meteorology, Ocean University of China, No. 5, Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China. Email: fugang@ouc.edu.cn

Save