• Adams, D. K., , and A. C. Comrie, 1997: The North American Monsoon. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 21972213.

  • Adang, T. C., , and R. L. Gall, 1989: Structure and dynamics of the Arizona monsoon boundary. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 14231438.

  • Anderson, B. T., , J. O. Roads, , S. C. Chen, , and H. M. H. Juang, 2000: Regional simulation of the low-level monsoon winds over the Gulf California and southwestern United States. J. Geophys. Res., 105D , 1795517969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blake, D., 1923: Sonora storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 51 , 585588.

  • Brenner, I. S., 1974: A surge of maritime tropical air—Gulf of California to the Southwestern United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102 , 375389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryson, R., , and W. P. Lowry, 1955: Synoptic climatology of the Arizona summer precipitation singularity. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 36 , 329339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, A. M., 1985: Synoptic and satellite aspects of the southwestern U.S. summer “monsoon.”. J. Climatol., 5 , 389402.

  • Carleton, A. M., 1986: Synoptic–dynamic character of “bursts” and “breaks” in the southwest U.S. summer precipitation singularity. J. Climatol., 6 , 605623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, A. M., , D. A. Carpenter, , and P. J. Weser, 1990: Mechanisms of interannual variability of the southwest United States summer rainfall maximum. J. Climate, 3 , 9991015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douglas, M. W., 1995: The summertime low-level jet over the Gulf of California. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 23342347.

  • Douglas, M. W., , and J. C. Leal, 2003: Summertime surges over the Gulf of California: Aspects of their climatology, mean structure, and evolution from radiosonde, NCEP reanalysis, and rainfall data. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 5574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Douglas, M. W., , R. A. Maddox, , K. Howard, , and S. Reyes, 1993: The Mexican monsoon. J. Climate, 6 , 16651677.

  • Douglas, M. W., , A. Valdez–Manzanilla, , and R. G. Cueto, 1998: Diurnal variation and horizontal extent of the low-level jet over the northern Gulf of California. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 20172025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, L. B., , and J. D. Horel, 1994: Prediction of central Arizona convection. Part II: Further examination of the Eta Model forecasts. Wea. Forecasting, 9 , 508521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fuller, R. D., , and D. J. Stensrud, 2000: The relationship between tropical easterly waves and surges over the Gulf of California during the North American Monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 29832989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gochis, D. J., , A. Jimenez, , C. J. Watts, , J. Garatuza-Payan, , and W. J. Shuttleworth, 2004: Analysis of 2002 and 2003 warm-season precipitation from the North American Monsoon Experiment event rain gauge network. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 29382953.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, C. R., , and W. D. Sellers, 1964: Arizona Climate. The University of Arizona Press, 503 pp.

  • Hales, J. E., 1972: Surges of maritime tropical air northward over the Gulf of California. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100 , 298306.

  • Hales, J. E., 1974: Southwestern United States summer monsoon source—Gulf of Mexico or Pacific Ocean? J. Appl. Meteor., 13 , 331342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hastings, J. R., , and R. Turner, 1965: Seasonal precipitation regimes in Baja California. Geogr. Ann., 47A , 204223.

  • Jurwitz, L. R., 1953: Arizona’s two-season rainfall pattern. Weatherwise, 6 , 9699.

  • Maddox, R. A., , D. M. McCollum, , and K. W. Howard, 1995: Large-scale patterns associated with severe summertime thunderstorms over central Arizona. Wea. Forecasting, 10 , 763778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCollum, D. M., , R. A. Maddox, , and K. W. Howard, 1995: Case study of a severe mesoscale convective system in central Arizona. Wea. Forecasting, 10 , 643665.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mullen, S. L., , J. T. Schmitz, , and N. O. Renno, 1998: Intraseasonal variability of the summer monsoon over southeast Arizona. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 30163035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reitan, C. H., 1960: Distribution of precipitable water vapor over the continental United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 41 , 7987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowson, D. R., , and S. J. Colucci, 1992: Synoptic climatology of thermal low pressure systems over southwestern North America. Int. J. Climatol., 12 , 529545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmitz, T. J., , and S. L. Mullen, 1996: Water vapor transport associated with the summertime North American monsoon as depicted by ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 9 , 16211633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stensrud, D. J., , R. L. Gall, , and M. K. Nordquist, 1997: Surges over the Gulf of California during the Mexican Monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 417437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ward, R., 1917: Rainfall types of the United States. Geogr. Rev., 4 , 131144.

  • Willett, H. C., 1940: Characteristic properties of North American air masses. Air Mass and Isentropic Analysis, J. Namias, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73–108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zehnder, J. A., 2004: Dynamic mechanisms of the gulf surge. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .D10107, doi:10.1029/2004JD004616.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 12 12 1
PDF Downloads 5 5 0

Using Sounding Data to Detect Gulf Surges during the North American Monsoon

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Periodic surges of moisture from the Gulf of California are considered to be partly responsible for widespread showers and thunderstorms across the deserts of Arizona during the summer monsoon season. Presently, the primary method for detecting these surges is to look for changes in the surface observations at Yuma, Arizona. Unfortunately, these surface data are easily influenced by gust fronts, marine layers, and the dramatic diurnal patterns of the desert environment. Therefore, a new method for Assessing Low-level Atmospheric Moisture using Soundings (ALARMS) is proposed. Gulf surge–induced moisture increases identified by this new set of criteria are compared to other methods in order to determine the usefulness of each. This study demonstrates that the proposed method performs much better than the others that were tested, with the additional advantage of being relatively easy to apply.

Corresponding author address: P. Grady Dixon, P.O. Box 5448, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5448. Email: grady.dixon@msstate.edu

Abstract

Periodic surges of moisture from the Gulf of California are considered to be partly responsible for widespread showers and thunderstorms across the deserts of Arizona during the summer monsoon season. Presently, the primary method for detecting these surges is to look for changes in the surface observations at Yuma, Arizona. Unfortunately, these surface data are easily influenced by gust fronts, marine layers, and the dramatic diurnal patterns of the desert environment. Therefore, a new method for Assessing Low-level Atmospheric Moisture using Soundings (ALARMS) is proposed. Gulf surge–induced moisture increases identified by this new set of criteria are compared to other methods in order to determine the usefulness of each. This study demonstrates that the proposed method performs much better than the others that were tested, with the additional advantage of being relatively easy to apply.

Corresponding author address: P. Grady Dixon, P.O. Box 5448, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5448. Email: grady.dixon@msstate.edu

Save