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Response Functions for Arbitrary Weight Functions and Data Distributions. Part I: Framework for Interpreting the Response Function

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  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, and Regional Weather Information Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota
  • | 2 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, and Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman, Oklahoma
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Abstract

The response function is a commonly used measure of analysis scheme properties. Its use in the interpretation of analyses of real-valued data, however, is unnecessarily complicated by the structure of the standard form of the Fourier transform. Specifically, interpretation using this form of the Fourier transform requires knowledge of the relationship between Fourier transform values that are symmetric about the origin. Here, these relationships are used to simplify the application of the response function to the interpretation of analysis scheme properties.

In doing so, Fourier transforms are used because they can be applied to studying effects that both data sampling and weight functions have upon analyses. A complication arises, however, in the treatment of constant and sinusoidal input since they do not have Fourier transforms in the traditional sense. To handle these highly useful forms, distribution theory is used to generalize Fourier transform theory. This extension enables Fourier transform theory to handle both functions that have Fourier transforms in the traditional sense and functions that can be represented using Fourier series.

The key step in simplifying the use of the response function is the expression of the inverse Fourier transform in a magnitude and phase form, which involves folding the integration domain onto itself so that integration is performed over only half of the domain. Once this is accomplished, interpretation of the response function is in terms of amplitude and phase modulations, which indicate how amplitudes and phases of input waves are affected by an analysis scheme. This interpretation is quite elegant since its formulation in terms of properties of input waves results in a one-to-one input-to-output wave interpretation of analysis scheme effects.

Corresponding author address: Mark A. Askelson, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, P.O. Box 9006, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9006. Email: askelson@aero.und.edu

Abstract

The response function is a commonly used measure of analysis scheme properties. Its use in the interpretation of analyses of real-valued data, however, is unnecessarily complicated by the structure of the standard form of the Fourier transform. Specifically, interpretation using this form of the Fourier transform requires knowledge of the relationship between Fourier transform values that are symmetric about the origin. Here, these relationships are used to simplify the application of the response function to the interpretation of analysis scheme properties.

In doing so, Fourier transforms are used because they can be applied to studying effects that both data sampling and weight functions have upon analyses. A complication arises, however, in the treatment of constant and sinusoidal input since they do not have Fourier transforms in the traditional sense. To handle these highly useful forms, distribution theory is used to generalize Fourier transform theory. This extension enables Fourier transform theory to handle both functions that have Fourier transforms in the traditional sense and functions that can be represented using Fourier series.

The key step in simplifying the use of the response function is the expression of the inverse Fourier transform in a magnitude and phase form, which involves folding the integration domain onto itself so that integration is performed over only half of the domain. Once this is accomplished, interpretation of the response function is in terms of amplitude and phase modulations, which indicate how amplitudes and phases of input waves are affected by an analysis scheme. This interpretation is quite elegant since its formulation in terms of properties of input waves results in a one-to-one input-to-output wave interpretation of analysis scheme effects.

Corresponding author address: Mark A. Askelson, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, P.O. Box 9006, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9006. Email: askelson@aero.und.edu

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