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Response Functions for Arbitrary Weight Functions and Data Distributions. Part II: Response Function Derivation and Verification

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  • 1 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, and Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, and NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 2 Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California
  • | 3 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, and Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman, Oklahoma
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Abstract

Distance-dependent weighted averaging (DDWA) is a process that is fundamental to most of the objective analysis schemes that are used in meteorology. Despite its ubiquity, aspects of its effects are still poorly understood. This is especially true for the most typical situation of observations that are discrete, bounded, and irregularly distributed.

To facilitate understanding of the effects of DDWA schemes, a framework that enables the determination of response functions for arbitrary weight functions and data distributions is developed. An essential element of this approach is the equivalent analysis, which is a hypothetical analysis that is produced by using, throughout the analysis domain, the same weight function and data distribution that apply at the point where the response function is desired. This artifice enables the derivation of the response function by way of the convolution theorem. Although this approach requires a bit more effort than an alternative one, the reward is additional insight into the impacts of DDWA analyses.

An important insight gained through this approach is the exact nature of the DDWA response function. For DDWA schemes the response function is the complex conjugate of the normalized Fourier transform of the effective weight function. In facilitating this result, this approach affords a better understanding of which elements (weight functions, data distributions, normalization factors, etc.) affect response functions and how they interact to do so.

Tests of the response function for continuous, bounded data and discrete, irregularly distributed data verify the validity of the response functions obtained herein. They also reinforce previous findings regarding the dependence of response functions on analysis location and the impacts of data boundaries and irregular data spacing.

Interpretation of the response function in terms of amplitude and phase modulations is illustrated using examples. Inclusion of phase shift information is important in the evaluation of DDWA schemes when they are applied to situations that may produce significant phase shifts. These situations include those where data boundaries influence the analysis value and where data are irregularly distributed. By illustrating the attendant movement, or shift, of data, phase shift information also provides an elegant interpretation of extrapolation.

* Current affiliation: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota

Corresponding author address: Mark A. Askelson, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, P.O. Box 9006, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9006. Email: askelson@aero.und.edu

Abstract

Distance-dependent weighted averaging (DDWA) is a process that is fundamental to most of the objective analysis schemes that are used in meteorology. Despite its ubiquity, aspects of its effects are still poorly understood. This is especially true for the most typical situation of observations that are discrete, bounded, and irregularly distributed.

To facilitate understanding of the effects of DDWA schemes, a framework that enables the determination of response functions for arbitrary weight functions and data distributions is developed. An essential element of this approach is the equivalent analysis, which is a hypothetical analysis that is produced by using, throughout the analysis domain, the same weight function and data distribution that apply at the point where the response function is desired. This artifice enables the derivation of the response function by way of the convolution theorem. Although this approach requires a bit more effort than an alternative one, the reward is additional insight into the impacts of DDWA analyses.

An important insight gained through this approach is the exact nature of the DDWA response function. For DDWA schemes the response function is the complex conjugate of the normalized Fourier transform of the effective weight function. In facilitating this result, this approach affords a better understanding of which elements (weight functions, data distributions, normalization factors, etc.) affect response functions and how they interact to do so.

Tests of the response function for continuous, bounded data and discrete, irregularly distributed data verify the validity of the response functions obtained herein. They also reinforce previous findings regarding the dependence of response functions on analysis location and the impacts of data boundaries and irregular data spacing.

Interpretation of the response function in terms of amplitude and phase modulations is illustrated using examples. Inclusion of phase shift information is important in the evaluation of DDWA schemes when they are applied to situations that may produce significant phase shifts. These situations include those where data boundaries influence the analysis value and where data are irregularly distributed. By illustrating the attendant movement, or shift, of data, phase shift information also provides an elegant interpretation of extrapolation.

* Current affiliation: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota

Corresponding author address: Mark A. Askelson, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, P.O. Box 9006, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9006. Email: askelson@aero.und.edu

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