• Allerup, P., and H. Madsen, 1979: Accuracy of point precipitation measurements. Climatology Paper 5, Danish Meteorological Institute, Charlottenlund, Denmark, 84 pp. [Available from Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.].

  • Amitai, E., 2000: Systematic variation of observed radar reflectivity–rainfall rate relations in the Tropics. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 21982208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Battan, L. J., 1973: Radar Observations of the Atmosphere. University of Chicago Press, 324 pp.

  • Black, M. L., R. W. Burpee, and F. D. Marks Jr., 1996: Vertical motion characteristics of tropical cyclones determined with airborne Doppler radial velocities. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 802822.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, M. L., J. F. Gamache, F. D. Marks Jr., C. E. Samsury, and H. E. Willoughby, 2002: Eastern Pacific Hurricanes Jimena of 1991 and Olivia of 1994: The effect of vertical shear on structure and intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 22912312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, R. A., and J. Hallett, 1986: Observations of the distribution of ice in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 18871909.

  • Blackwell, K. G., 2000: The evolution of Hurricane Danny (1997) at landfall: Doppler-observed eyewall replacement, vortex contraction/intensification, and low-level wind maxima. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 40024016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell Scientific Inc., cited. 2006: Instruction manual for CSI Model CS-700 rain gauge. [Available online at http://www.campbellsci.com.].

  • Cecil, D. L., and E. J. Zipser, 2002: Reflectivity, ice scattering, and lightning characteristics of hurricane eyewalls and rainbands. Part II: Intercomparison of observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 785801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chumchean, S., A. Sharma, and A. Seed, 2003: Radar rainfall error variance and its impact on radar rainfall calibration. Phys. Chem. Earth, 28 , 2739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., and J. Molinari, 2002: The effects of vertical wind shear on the distribution of convection in tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 21102123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duchon, C. E., and G. R. Essenberg, 2001: Comparative rainfall observations from pit and aboveground rain gauges with and without wind shields. Water Resour. Res., 37 , 32533263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, G. E., and B. I. Miller, 1960: Atlantic Hurricanes. Louisiana State University Press, 377 pp.

  • Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2006: Port Manatee CDF expansion/completeness review (0264085/RAI 1). Attachment-DCM-2_Freeboard.pdf, 43 pp. [Available from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection 3900 Commonwealth Blvd., MS 300, Tallahassee, FL 32399.].

  • Frank, W. M., and E. A. Ritchie, 1999: Effects of environmental flow upon tropical cyclone structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 20442061.

  • Hassee, L., M. Grossklaus, K. Uhlig, and P. Timm, 1998: A ship rain gauge for use in high wind speeds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15 , 380386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Humphrey, M. D., J. D. Istok, J. Y. Lee, J. A. Hevesi, and A. L. Flint, 1997: A new method for automated dynamic calibration of tipping bucket rain gauges. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14 , 15131519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jorgensen, D. P., 1984: Mesoscale and convective scale characteristics of mature hurricanes. Part I: General observations by research aircraft. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 12671285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jorgensen, D. P., and P. T. Willis, 1982: A ZR relationship for hurricanes. J. Appl. Meteor., 21 , 356366.

  • Kimball, S. K., and J. L. Evans, 2002: Idealized numerical simulations of hurricane–trough interaction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 22102227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knupp, K. R., J. Walters, and M. Biggerstaff, 2006: Doppler profile and radar observations of boundary layer variability during the landfall of Tropical Storm Gabrielle. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 234251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koschmieder, H., 1934: Methods and results of definite rain measurements. Mon. Wea. Rev., 62 , 57.

  • Liao, L., R. Meneghini, and T. Iguchi, 2001: Comparison of rain rate and reflectivity factor derived from the TRMM precipitation radar and the WSR-88D over the Melbourne, Florida, site. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18 , 19591974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marks Jr., F. D., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1987: Inner core structure of Hurricane Alicia from airborne Doppler radar observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 12961317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, J. S., and W. M. Palmer, 1948: The distribution of raindrops with size. J. Meteor., 5 , 165166.

  • McFarquhar, G. M., and R. A. Black, 2004: Observations of particle size and phase in tropical cyclones: Implications for mesoscale modeling of microphysical processes. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 422439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinari, J., P. K. Moore, V. P. Idone, R. W. Henderson, and A. B. Saljoughy, 1994: Cloud-to ground lightning in Hurricane Andrew. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 1666516676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinari, J., P. Moore, and V. Idone, 1999: Convective structure of hurricanes as revealed by lightning locations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 520534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinari, J., D. Vollaro, and K. L. Corbosiero, 2004: Tropical cyclone formation in a sheared environment: A case study. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 24932509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCDC, 1979a: Texas Climatological Data. Vol. 84, July 1979, 75 pp.

  • NCDC, 1979b: Surface airways observations (Hobby Airport and Ellington AFB, TX). National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, July 1979, 15 pp.

  • NCDC, cited. 1997: Hurricane Danny. Narrative, August 8, 1997. [Available online at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reports/hurrdanny/hurrdann.html#RAIN.].

  • Nespor, V., and B. Sevruk, 1999: Estimation of wind-induced error of rainfall gauge measurements using a numerical model simulation. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 450464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norton, G., 1951: Hurricanes of the 1950 season. Mon. Wea. Rev., 79 , 815.

  • NSSL, 1997: WSR-88D Algorithm Testing and Display System. NOAA/NSSL, 178 pp. [Available from WATADS Support, National Severe Storm Laboratory, 1313 Halley Circle, Norman, OK 73069.].

  • Nystuen, J. A., 1999: Relative performance of automatic rain gauges under different rainfall conditions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 10251043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OFCM, 1992: WSR-88D products and algorithms. Federal Meteorological Handbook 11-Part C, FCM-H11C-1991, Washington, DC, 62 pp. [Available from OFCM, 845 Colesville Rd., Suite 1500, Silver Spring, MD 20910.].

  • Powell, M. D., 1987: Changes in the low-level kinematic and thermodynamic structure of Hurricane Alicia (1983) at landfall. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 7599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, M. D., 1990: Boundary layer structure and dynamics in outer hurricane rainbands. Part I: Mesoscale rainfall and kinematic structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118 , 891917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, M. D., S. H. Houston, and T. A. Reinhold, 1996: Hurricane Andrew’s landfall in South Florida. Part I: Standardizing measurements for documentation of surface wind fields. Wea. Forecasting, 11 , 304328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rappaport, E. N., 1999: Atlantic hurricane season of 1997. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 20122026.

  • Rosenfeld, D., D. B. Wolff, and D. Atlas, 1993: General probability-matched relations between radar reflectivity and rain rate. J. Appl. Meteor., 32 , 5072.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serra, Y. L., P. A’Hearn, H. P. Freitag, and M. J. McPhaden, 2001: ATLAS self-siphoning rain gauge error estimates. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18 , 19892002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simpson, R. H., and H. Riehl, 1981: The Hurricane and Its Impact. Louisiana State University Press, 398 pp.

  • U.S. Climatological Data, 1950: Annual summary 1950. Asheville, NC, Vol. 1, 75 pp.

  • Wilson, W. T., 1954: Discussion of paper “Precipitation at Barrow, Alaska, greater than Recorded.”. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 35 , 206207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Meteorological Organization, 1962: Precipitation measurements at sea. Tech. Note 47, WMO-124-TP-55, 18 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 290 157 7
PDF Downloads 155 80 0

Radar and Rain Gauge Analysis of the Extreme Rainfall during Hurricane Danny’s (1997) Landfall

View More View Less
  • 1 National Weather Service Forecast Office, Mobile, Alabama
  • | 2 Department of Earth Sciences, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama
Restricted access

Abstract

As a minimal hurricane, Danny moved over Mobile Bay around 0900 UTC 19 July 1997 and became stationary by midmorning, while situated within a synoptic col. Danny then evolved into an asymmetric storm with an intensely convective rainband that produced torrential rainfall through 1200 UTC 20 July 1997. Danny’s center remained <100 km from the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) in Mobile, Alabama, for over 48 h, allowing long-term surveillance of the storm’s inner core. This event marked the first time the tropical ZR relationship was employed on an operational WSR-88D system during tropical cyclone landfall. A radar-estimated maximum rainfall accumulation of 1097 mm (43.2 in.) was analyzed over southwestern Mobile Bay. A NWS cooperative rain gauge located on Dauphin Island, Alabama, measured 896 mm (35.28 in.). An adjacent standard rain gauge measured the highest rainfall amount of 932 mm (36.71 in.). This paper investigates the spatial and temporal distribution and potential magnitude of Danny’s torrential rainfall episode over coastal Alabama. It is shown that both gauges and radar seriously underestimated event rainfall. An estimate is given for what could have been the true event rainfall amount. In the case of the radar, the WSR-88D Algorithm Testing and Display System is used to obtain a better estimate of rainfall using higher dBZ caps than the operational 50 dBZ. In the case of the tipping-bucket rain gauge, wind and mechanical error estimates were applied in order to quantify rainfall underestimation.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey M. Medlin, National Weather Service Forecast Office, 8400 Airport Blvd., Bldg. 11, Mobile, AL 36688. Email: jeff.medlin@noaa.gov

Abstract

As a minimal hurricane, Danny moved over Mobile Bay around 0900 UTC 19 July 1997 and became stationary by midmorning, while situated within a synoptic col. Danny then evolved into an asymmetric storm with an intensely convective rainband that produced torrential rainfall through 1200 UTC 20 July 1997. Danny’s center remained <100 km from the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) in Mobile, Alabama, for over 48 h, allowing long-term surveillance of the storm’s inner core. This event marked the first time the tropical ZR relationship was employed on an operational WSR-88D system during tropical cyclone landfall. A radar-estimated maximum rainfall accumulation of 1097 mm (43.2 in.) was analyzed over southwestern Mobile Bay. A NWS cooperative rain gauge located on Dauphin Island, Alabama, measured 896 mm (35.28 in.). An adjacent standard rain gauge measured the highest rainfall amount of 932 mm (36.71 in.). This paper investigates the spatial and temporal distribution and potential magnitude of Danny’s torrential rainfall episode over coastal Alabama. It is shown that both gauges and radar seriously underestimated event rainfall. An estimate is given for what could have been the true event rainfall amount. In the case of the radar, the WSR-88D Algorithm Testing and Display System is used to obtain a better estimate of rainfall using higher dBZ caps than the operational 50 dBZ. In the case of the tipping-bucket rain gauge, wind and mechanical error estimates were applied in order to quantify rainfall underestimation.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey M. Medlin, National Weather Service Forecast Office, 8400 Airport Blvd., Bldg. 11, Mobile, AL 36688. Email: jeff.medlin@noaa.gov

Save