• Alexander, C. R., , and J. M. Wurman, 2005: The 30 May 1998 Spencer, South Dakota storm. Part I: The structural evolution and environment of the tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 7297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnes, S. L., 1964: A technique for maximizing details in numerical weather map analysis. J. Appl. Meteor., 3 , 396409.

  • Beck, J. R., , J. L. Schroeder, , and J. M. Wurman, 2006: High-resolution dual-Doppler analyses of the 29 May 2001 Kress, Texas, supercell. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 31253148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., , W. P. Unruh, , D. C. Dowell, , T. A. Hutchinson, , T. M. Crawford, , A. C. Wood, , and H. Stein, 1997: Doppler radar observations of the Northfield, Texas, tornado of 25 May 1994. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 212230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bluestein, H. B., , C. C. Weiss, , and A. L. Pazmany, 2003: Mobile Doppler radar observations of a tornado in a supercell near Bassett, Nebraska, on 5 June 1999. Part I: Tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 29542967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryan, G. H., , J. C. Knievel, , and M. D. Parker, 2006: A multimodel assessment of RKW theory’s relevance to squall-line characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 27722792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craven, J. P., , R. E. Jewell, , and H. E. Brooks, 2002: Comparison between observed convective cloud-base heights and lifting condensation level for two different lifted parcels. Wea. Forecasting, 17 , 885890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies-Jones, R. P., 1979: Dual-Doppler radar coverage area as a function of measurement accuracy and spatial resolution. J. Appl. Meteor., 18 , 12291233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doswell III, C. A., , and E. N. Rasmussen, 1994: The effect of neglecting the virtual temperature correction on CAPE calculations. Wea. Forecasting, 9 , 625629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doviak, R. J., , and D. S. Zrnic, 1993: Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. Academic Press, 562 pp.

  • Dowell, D. C., , and H. B. Bluestein, 2002: The 8 June 1995 McLean, Texas, storm. Part I: Observations of cyclic tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 26262648.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frame, J., , and P. Markowski, 2006: Simulations of a supercell thunderstorm with radiative transfer, surface physics, and a soil model. Preprints, 23rd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 16.6. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/115442.pdf.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gamache, J. F., 1997: Evaluation of a fully three-dimensional variational Doppler analysis technique. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 422–423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grzych, M. L., , B. D. Lee, , and C. A. Finley, 2007: Thermodynamic analysis of supercell rear-flank downdrafts from project ANSWERS. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 240246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heinselman, P. L., , and A. V. Ryzhkov, 2006: Validation of polarimetric hail detection. Wea. Forecasting, 21 , 839850.

  • Johnson, K. D., , P. K. Wang, , and J. M. Straka, 1993: Numerical simulations of the 2 August 1981 CCOPE supercell storm with and without ice microphysics. J. Appl. Meteor., 32 , 745759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klemp, J. B., 1987: Dynamics of tornadic thunderstorms. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 19 , 369402.

  • Klemp, J. B., , and R. Rotunno, 1983: A study of the tornadic region within a supercell thunderstorm. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 359377.

  • Lee, W-C., , and J. M. Wurman, 2005: Diagnosed three-dimensional axisymmetric structure of the Mulhall tornado on 3 May 1999. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 23732393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemon, L. R., , and C. A. Doswell III, 1979: Severe thunderstorm evolution and mesocyclone structure as related to tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107 , 11841197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, H., , and V. Chandrasekar, 2000: Classification of hydrometeors based on polarimetric radar measurements: Development of fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy systems, and in situ verification. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17 , 140164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lutz, J., , P. Johnson, , B. Lewis, , E. Loew, , M. Randall, , and J. VanAndel, 1995: NCAR’s S-Pol: Portable polarimetric S-band radar. Preprints, Ninth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Charlotte, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 408–410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markowski, P. M., , J. M. Straka, , and E. N. Rasmussen, 2002: Direct surface thermodynamic observations within the rear-flank downdrafts of nontornadic and tornadic supercells. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 16921721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCDC, 2002: Storm Data. Vol. 44, No. 5, 414 pp.

  • Pauley, P. M., , and X. Wu, 1990: The theoretical, discrete, and actual response of the Barnes objective analysis scheme for one- and two-dimensional fields. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118 , 11451164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotunno, R., , and J. B. Klemp, 1985: On the rotation and propagation of simulated supercell thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 271292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryzhkov, A. V., , T. J. Schuur, , D. W. Burgess, , and D. S. Zrnic, 2005: Polarimetric tornado detection. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 557570.

  • Shabbott, C. J., , and P. M. Markowski, 2006: Surface in situ observations within the outflow of forward-flank downdrafts of supercell thunderstorms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 14221441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Straka, J. M., 1996: Hydrometeor fields in supercell storms as deduced from dual-polarization radar. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 551–554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Straka, J. M., , D. S. Zrnic, , and A. V. Ryzhkov, 2000: Bulk hydrometeor classification and quantification using polarimetric radar data: Synthesis of relations. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 13411372.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trapp, R. J., 1999: Observations of nontornadic low-level mesocyclones and attendant tornadogenesis failure during VORTEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 16931705.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trapp, R. J., , and C. A. Doswell III, 2000: Radar data objective analysis. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17 , 105120.

  • Vivekanandan, J., , S. M. Ellis, , R. Oye, , D. S. Zrnic, , A. V. Ryzhkov, , and J. M. Straka, 1999: Cloud microphysics retrieval using S-band dual-polarization radar measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 381387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakimoto, R. M., 2001: Convectively driven high wind events. Severe Convective Storms, Meteor. Monogr., No. 50, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 255–298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakimoto, R. M., , and H. Cai, 2000: Analysis of a nontornadic storm during VORTEX 95. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 565592.

  • Wakimoto, R. M., , W-C. Lee, , H. B. Bluestein, , C-H. Liu, , and P. H. Hildbrand, 1996: ELDORA observations during VORTEX 95. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 14651481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakimoto, R. M., , C. Liu, , and H. Cai, 1998: The Garden City, Kansas, storm during VORTEX 95. Part I: Overview of the storm’s life cycle and mesocyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 372392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakimoto, R. M., , H. V. Murphey, , D. C. Dowell, , and H. B. Bluestein, 2003: The Kellerville tornado during VORTEX: Damage survey and Doppler radar analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 21972221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weckwerth, T. M., and Coauthors, 2004: An overview of the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) and some preliminary highlights. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 253277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wicker, L. J., , and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1995: Simulation and analysis of tornado development and decay within a three-dimensional supercell thunderstorm. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 26752703.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J. M., 2001: The DOW Multiple-Doppler Network. Preprints, 30th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95–97.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J. M., , and S. Gill, 2000: Finescale radar observations of the Dimmitt, Texas (2 June 1995), tornado. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 21352164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J. M., , J. M. Straka, , E. N. Rasmussen, , M. Randall, , and A. Zahrai, 1997: Design and deployment of a portable, pencil-beam, pulsed, 3-cm Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14 , 15021512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J. M., , Y. P. Richardson, , C. R. Alexander, , S. Weygandt, , and P. F. Zhang, 2007a: Dual-Doppler and single-Doppler analysis analysis of a tornadic storm undergoing mergers and repeated tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 736758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wurman, J. M., , Y. P. Richardson, , C. R. Alexander, , S. Weygandt, , and P. F. Zhang, 2007b: Dual-Doppler analysis of winds and vorticity budget terms near a tornado. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 23922405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziegler, C. L., , E. N. Rasmussen, , T. R. Shepherd, , A. I. Watson, , and J. M. Straka, 2001: The evolution of low-level rotation in the 29 May 1994 Newcastle-Graham, Texas, storm complex during VORTEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 13391368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zrnic, D. S., , A. V. Ryzhkov, , J. M. Straka, , Y. Liu, , and J. Vivekanandan, 2001: Testing a procedure for automatic classification of hydrometeor types. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18 , 892913.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 40 40 7
PDF Downloads 23 23 5

Polarimetric and Dual-Doppler Radar Observations of the Lipscomb County, Texas, Supercell Thunderstorm on 23 May 2002

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
  • | 2 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 3 Center for Severe Weather Research, Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Polarimetric and dual-Doppler observations of a supercell observed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) S-band Polarimetric (SPOL) radar, two Doppler-On-Wheels (DOW) radars, and the Greek XPOL radar on 23 May 2002 during the International H2O Project (IHOP) are presented. The polarimetric radar observations began as the storm organized into a supercell and continued for over an hour while the storm was in its mature phase. The hydrometeor distribution within the mature storm was retrieved using a fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm. The dual-Doppler radar observations began around the time that the polarimetric radar observations concluded, and they covered the end of the mature phase and much of the dissipation phase of the storm. The dual-Doppler wind syntheses are used to evaluate the importance of the forward-flank outflow in augmenting the horizontal vorticity field near the storm above 400 m. In this case, having a relatively weak low-level mesocyclone, the parcel trajectories and the horizontal vorticity field observed within the forward-flank outflow are not what one would likely expect based on prior numerical studies (having generally stronger low-level mesocyclones) that have emphasized an important dynamical role for forward-flank downdrafts in terms of their horizontal vorticity generation. Instead, the observed trajectories could not be traced from the forward-flank outflow toward the storm’s updraft and the horizontal vorticity vectors within the forward-flank outflow generally did not point (westward) toward the storm’s updraft.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey Frame, Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, 503 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802. Email: jwf155@psu.edu

Abstract

Polarimetric and dual-Doppler observations of a supercell observed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) S-band Polarimetric (SPOL) radar, two Doppler-On-Wheels (DOW) radars, and the Greek XPOL radar on 23 May 2002 during the International H2O Project (IHOP) are presented. The polarimetric radar observations began as the storm organized into a supercell and continued for over an hour while the storm was in its mature phase. The hydrometeor distribution within the mature storm was retrieved using a fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm. The dual-Doppler radar observations began around the time that the polarimetric radar observations concluded, and they covered the end of the mature phase and much of the dissipation phase of the storm. The dual-Doppler wind syntheses are used to evaluate the importance of the forward-flank outflow in augmenting the horizontal vorticity field near the storm above 400 m. In this case, having a relatively weak low-level mesocyclone, the parcel trajectories and the horizontal vorticity field observed within the forward-flank outflow are not what one would likely expect based on prior numerical studies (having generally stronger low-level mesocyclones) that have emphasized an important dynamical role for forward-flank downdrafts in terms of their horizontal vorticity generation. Instead, the observed trajectories could not be traced from the forward-flank outflow toward the storm’s updraft and the horizontal vorticity vectors within the forward-flank outflow generally did not point (westward) toward the storm’s updraft.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey Frame, Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, 503 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802. Email: jwf155@psu.edu

Save