• Atallah, E., and L. F. Bosart, 2003: Extratropical transition and precipitation distribution: A case study of Floyd (1999). Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 10631081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atallah, E., L. F. Bosart, and A. R. Aiyyer, 2007: Precipitation distribution associated with landfalling tropical cyclones over the eastern United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 21852206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bender, M. A., 1997: The effect of relative flow on the asymmetric structure in the interior of hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 703724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beven II, J. L., and J. Franklin, 2004: Eastern North Pacific hurricane season of 1999. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 10361047.

  • Braun, S. A., and L. Wu, 2007: A Numerical study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part II: Shear and the organization of eyewall vertical motion. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 11791194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, S. A., M. T. Montgomery, and Z. Pu, 2006: High-resolution simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: The organization of eyewall vertical motion. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 1942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cecil, D. J., 2007: Satellite-derived rain rates in vertically sheared tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 , L02811. doi:10.1029/2006GL027942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S., J. A. Knaff, and F. D. Marks Jr., 2006: Effects of vertical wind shear and storm motion on tropical cyclone rainfall asymmetries deduced from TRMM. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 31903208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • China Meteorological Administration, 2007: Yearbook of Meteorological Disasters (2007), X. Xu, Ed.,. Meteorological Press of China, 260 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cline, I. M., 1926: Tropical Cyclones. MacMillan, 301 pp.

  • Colle, B. A., 2003: Numerical simulation of the extratropical transition of Floyd (1999): Structural evolution and responsible mechanisms for the heavy rainfall over the northeast United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 29052926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., and J. Molinari, 2002: The effects of vertical wind shear on the distribution of convection in tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 21102123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbosiero, K. L., and J. Molinari, 2003: The relationship between storm motion, vertical wind shear, and convective asymmetries in tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 366376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doswell III, C. A., H. E. Brooks, and R. A. Maddox, 1996: Flash flood forecasting: An ingredients-based methodology. Wea. Forecasting, 11 , 560581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duan, Y., 2006: Typhoons Bilis and Saomai: Why the impacts were so severe. WMO Bull., 55 (4) 280284.

  • Dunn, G. E., and B. I. Miller, 1960: Atlantic Hurricanes. Louisiana State University Press, 377 pp.

  • Durran, D. R., and L. W. Snellman, 1987: The diagnosis of synoptic-scale vertical motion in an operational environment. Wea. Forecasting, 2 , 1731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frank, W. M., and E. A. Ritchie, 1999: Effects of environmental flow upon tropical cyclone structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 20442061.

  • Frank, W. M., and E. A. Ritchie, 2001: Effects of vertical wind shear on the intensity and structure of numerically simulated hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 22492269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grell, G. A., and D. Devenyi, 2002: A generalized approach to parameterizing convection combining ensemble and data assimilation techniques. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 1693. doi:10.1029/2002GL015311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harr, P. A., and R. L. Elsberry, 2000: Extratropical transition of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific. Part I: Evolution of structural characteristics during the transition process. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 26132633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harr, P. A., R. L. Elsberry, and T. F. Hogan, 2000: Extratropical transition of tropical cyclones over the Western North Pacific. Part II: The impact of midlatitude circulation characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 26342653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, S-Y., J. Dudhia, and S-H. Chen, 2004: A revised approach to ice microphysical processes for the parameterization of clouds and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 103120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., I. Draghici, and H. C. Davies, 1978: A new look at the ω equation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 104 , 3138.

  • Houze, R. A., S. S. Chen Jr., B. F. Smull, W-C. Lee, and M. M. Bell, 2007: Hurricane intensity and eyewall replacement. Science, 315 , 12351239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R. W., 1987: A simulation of hurricane landfall with a numerical model featuring latent heating by the resolvable scales. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 22792297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, S. C., 1995: The evolution of vortices in vertical shear: Initially barotropic vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121 , 821851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, S. C., 2000a: The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. II: Large-scale asymmetries. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 31373159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, S. C., 2000b: The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. III: Baroclinic vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 31613185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, J., and Coauthors, 2003: Advancement in the study of typhoon rainstorm (in Chinese). J. Trop. Meteor., 19 , (Suppl.). 152159.

  • Li, J. N., A. Y. Wany, E. B. Hou, G. L. Li, X. J. He, T. Y. Peng, and Q. Zeng, 2004: A numerical prediction experiment of track and heavy rainfall round about Typhoon Fitow. J. Trop. Oceanogr., 23 , 1624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, Y. L., S. Chiao, T-A. Wang, M. L. Kaplan, and R. P. Weglarz, 2001a: Some common ingredients of heavy orographic rainfall. Wea. Forecasting, 16 , 633660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, Y. Y., Y. Q. Liu, and L. Q. Zhang, 2001b: An analysis on the impact of Severe Tropical Storm “Maria” on the torrential heavy rain in Shaoguan. Guangdong Meteor., 3 , 57.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lonfat, M., F. D. Marks Jr., and S. S. Chen, 2004: Precipitation distribution in tropical cyclones using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager: A global perspective. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 16451660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, B. L., 1964: A study of the filling of Hurricane Donna (1960) over land. Mon. Wea. Rev., 92 , 389406.

  • Noh, Y., W-G. Cheon, S-Y. Hong, and S. Raasch, 2003: Improvement of the K-profile model for the planetary boundary layer based on large eddy simulation data. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 107 , 401427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pasch, R. J., M. B. Lawrence, L. A. Avila, J. L. Beven, J. L. Franklin, and S. R. Stewart, 2004: Atlantic hurricane season of 2002. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 18291859.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petterssen, S., 1936: Contribution to the theory of frontogenesis. Geofys. Publ., 11 (6) 27.

  • Powell, M. D., 1987: Changes in the low-level kinematic and thermodynamic structure of Hurricane Alicia (1983) at landfall. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 7599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raisanen, J., 1995: Factors affecting synoptic-scale vertical motions: A statistical study using a generalized omega equation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 24472460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rappaport, E. N., 2000: Loss of life in the United States associated with recent Atlantic tropical cyclones. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 20652073.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, R., S. Chen, and J. Tenerelli, 2003: A numerical study of the impact of vertical shear on the distribution of rainfall in Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 15771599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, M. D., and C. A. Doswell, 1999: Conceptual models of upper-level frontogenesis in south-westerly and north-westerly flow. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 25352562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro, L. J., 1983: Asymmetric boundary layer flow under a translating hurricane. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 19841998.

  • Sutcliffe, R. C., 1947: A contribution to the problem of development. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 73 , 370383.

  • Trenberth, K. E., 1978: On the interpretation of the diagnostic quasi-geostrophic omega equation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 131137.

  • Tuleya, R. E., and Y. Kurihara, 1978: A numerical simulation of the landfall of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 242257.

  • Wang, Y., and G. J. Holland, 1996: Tropical cyclone motion and evolution in vertical shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 33133332.

  • Willoughby, H. E., F. D. Marks, and R. J. Feinberg Jr., 1984: Stationary and moving convective bands in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 31893211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, L. G., S. A. Braun, J. Halverson, and G. Heymefield, 2006: A numerical study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part I: Model verification and storm evolution. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 6586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, Y., Z. Wu, S. Liu, and D. Gong, 2005: Potential vorticity analysis of a torrential rain triggered by a neutercane in Shandong province (in Chinese). J. Trop. Meteor., 21 , 3243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 14 14 14
PDF Downloads 3 3 3

Observational Analysis of Heavy Rainfall Mechanisms Associated with Severe Tropical Storm Bilis (2006) after Its Landfall

View More View Less
  • 1 China National Meteorological Center, Beijing, China
  • | 2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China
  • | 3 Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
  • | 4 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York
Restricted access

Abstract

This observational study attempts to determine factors responsible for the distribution of precipitation over large areas of southern China induced by Bilis, a western North Pacific Ocean severe tropical storm that made landfall on the southeastern coast of mainland China on 14 July 2006 with a remnant circulation that persisted over land until after 17 July 2006. The heavy rainfalls associated with Bilis during and after its landfall can be divided into three stages. The first stage of the rainfall, which occurred in Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces, could be directly induced by the inner-core storm circulation during its landfall. The third stage of rainfall, which occurred along the coastal areas of Guangdong and Fujian Provinces, likely resulted from the interaction between Bilis and the South China Sea monsoon enhanced by topographical lifting along the coast. The second stage of the rainfall, which appeared inland around the border regions between Jiangxi, Hunan, and Guangdong Provinces, caused the most catastrophic flooding and is the primary focus of the current study. It is found that during the second stage of the rainfall all three ingredients of deep moist convection (moisture, instability, and lifting) are in place. Several mechanisms, including vertical wind shear, warm-air advection, frontogenesis, and topography, may have contributed simultaneously to the lifting necessary for the generation of the heavy rainfall at this stage.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Zhiyong Meng, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China. Email: zymeng@pku.edu.cn

Abstract

This observational study attempts to determine factors responsible for the distribution of precipitation over large areas of southern China induced by Bilis, a western North Pacific Ocean severe tropical storm that made landfall on the southeastern coast of mainland China on 14 July 2006 with a remnant circulation that persisted over land until after 17 July 2006. The heavy rainfalls associated with Bilis during and after its landfall can be divided into three stages. The first stage of the rainfall, which occurred in Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces, could be directly induced by the inner-core storm circulation during its landfall. The third stage of rainfall, which occurred along the coastal areas of Guangdong and Fujian Provinces, likely resulted from the interaction between Bilis and the South China Sea monsoon enhanced by topographical lifting along the coast. The second stage of the rainfall, which appeared inland around the border regions between Jiangxi, Hunan, and Guangdong Provinces, caused the most catastrophic flooding and is the primary focus of the current study. It is found that during the second stage of the rainfall all three ingredients of deep moist convection (moisture, instability, and lifting) are in place. Several mechanisms, including vertical wind shear, warm-air advection, frontogenesis, and topography, may have contributed simultaneously to the lifting necessary for the generation of the heavy rainfall at this stage.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Zhiyong Meng, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China. Email: zymeng@pku.edu.cn

Save